Curriculum Team
Leader: Larry Hawkins – University of Science & Arts, OK
Members:
Judy Brawner - University of Science & Arts, OK

Jack Foreman - University of Tulsa, OK

Deborah Stryker - University of Kansas Medical Ct, KA

Henry Teller – University of Southern Mississippi, MS

********************************

Curriculum and Instructional Methods when Teaching Students who are

Deaf or Hard of Hearing

ACE-D/HH Syllabus

2000


 


I. Instructor

II Course Description:

    This course will examine curriculum and instructional strategies designed for deaf and hard-of-hearing students in the academic areas of math, science, and social studies. The development of language, reading, and writing will be integrated in each of the content areas. This course will look at issues in curriculum and instruction from preschool through high school. Students will plan, design units of instruction, develop lessons and materials, and present lessons.

III. General Course Goals:

NOTE: Students should include the following goals ,when appropriate, in planning and teaching in areas across the curriculum:

A. Utilize and coordinate language activities.

B. Utilize Deaf Culture activities.

C. Utilize constructivist approaches.

D. Utilize modern instructional technology and internet resources.

Upon completion of this course, students should be able to demonstrate

their knowledge of:

A. Basic Principles of Curriculum Development by:

1. Defining curriculum and instruction.
2. Locating sources of curriculum and models of curriculum development.
3. Developing curriculum for deaf and hard-of-hearing students (selecting, organizing, and sequencing content).
B. Planning for Instruction by:
1. Individualizing instruction. ( including IEPs)
2. Developing goals and objectives.
3. Designing thematic units of instruction.
4. Constructing effective lesson plans.
C. Instructional Strategies by:
1. Selecting, adapting and/or developing materials.
2. Selecting and adapting teaching strategies.
3. Presenting lessons.
D. Mathematics by:
1. Identifying methods and materials used in teaching math to deaf and hard-of-hearing students.
2. Demonstrating an ability to teach concept development.
3. Identifying the roles of language, writing, and reading in math instruction.
4. Assessing the math abilities of deaf or hard-of-hearing students.
5. Demonstrating the ability to use computers and other technology in teaching math.
E. Science by:
1. Discussing the value of science in the overall development of deaf and hard-of-hearing students.
2. Identifying the methods and materials used in teaching science to deaf and hard-of-hearing students.
3. Demonstrating an ability to teach the components of scientific reasoning.
4. Identifying the roles of language, writing, and reading in science instruction.
5. Evaluating/assessing progress in science.
6. Demonstrating the ability to use computers and other technology in teaching science.
F. Social Studies by:
1. Discussing the value of social studies in the overall development of deaf and hard-of-hearing students.
2. Identifying the methods and materials used in teaching social studies to deaf and hard-of-hearing students.
3. Demonstrating an ability to teach reasoning skills through social studies.
4. Identifying the roles of language, writing, and reading in social studies instruction.
5. Evaluating/assessing progress in social studies.
6. Demonstrating the ability to use computers and other technology in teaching social studies.
IV. Course Objectives:
Upon completion of this course, the student will be able to:
A. Describe the interrelationships among assessment, planning, materials, activities, teaching and the learning process.

B. Identify appropriate techniques and materials for assessment of the individual needs of deaf, hard-of-hearing, and multihandicapped deaf students.

C. Describe various types of environments and systems for delivery of services for deaf, hard-of-hearing, and multihandicapped deaf students.

D. Describe the roles of various members of the IEP team.

E. Write a procedurally correct IEP using data from psychoeducational assessments and case studies.

F. Identify and explain major theories of learning and cognitive development and discuss their application with deaf students.

G. Identify and compare theories of curriculum development and types of curricula.

H. Explain the use of, and/or development of, scope and sequence curriculum guides.

I. Describe characteristics of effective teachers.

J. Demonstrate the incorporation of critical thinking and problem solving strategies into lesson plan formats.

K. Develop thematic units in science, math, and social studies.

L. Apply effective teaching strategies in unit design and development.

M. Identify the components if an effective lesson plan.

N. Identify characteristics of learning environments which promote student-centered learning.

O. Discuss strategies for developing high levels of student engagement in academic tasks.

P. Develop lesson plans is science, math, and social studies.

Q. Develop materials and activities to introduce and reinforce lesson objectives.

R. Plan intervention strategies for students' weaknesses.

S. Integrate goals for the development of play and social development into the instructional program.

T. Design and construct a learning center to support a unit plan.

U. Plan and construct effective interactive bulletin boards.

V. Use internet and computer-based resources in the development of units of instruction.

W. Evaluate computer software in terms of effectiveness with deaf and hard-of-hearing students.

X. Critique relevant journal articles.

V. CED Standards
    I. PHILOSOPHICAL, HISTORICAL, and LEGAL FOUNDATIONS of SPECIAL EDUCATION KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS BEYOND COMMON CORE
     
      A. Knowledge
       
        6. The impact of various educational placement options (from the perspective of the needs of any given child who is Deaf/Hard of Hearing and consistent with program philosophy) with regard to cultural identity,
        linguistic, academic, and social-emotional development.


      B. Skills
       

        7. Apply understanding of theory, philosophy and models of practice to the education of students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

        8. Articulate pros and cons of current issues and trends in special education and the field of education of children who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.


    III. ASSESSMENT, DIAGNOSIS, and EVALUATION KN OWLEDGE AND SKILLS BEYOND COMMON CORE
     

      A. Knowledge
       
        20.Specialized terminology used in the assessments of children who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

        21. Components of an adequate evaluation for eligibility placement and program planning ( e.g., interpreters, special tests) decisions for students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

        22.Legal provisions, regulations and guidelines regarding unbiased diagnostic assessment, and use of instructional assessment measures with students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

        23.Special policies regarding referral and placement procedures (e.g., Federal Policy Guidance, Oct.30, 1992) for students who are

        Deaf/Hard of Hearing.


      B. Skills

      24.Administer appropriate assessment tools utilizing the natural/native/preferred language of the student who is Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

      25.Gather and analyze communication samples from students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing, including non-verbal as well as linguistic acts.

      26. Use exceptionality-specific assessment instruments (e.g., SAT-HI, TERA-DHH, FSST) appropriate for students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.


    IV. INSTRUCTIONAL CONTENT and PRACTICE KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS BEYOND COMMON CORE
     

      A. Knowledge
       
        27.Sources of specialized materials for students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

        29. The procedures and technologies required to educate students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing under one or more of the existing modes or philosophies (consistent with program philosophy).

        32.Subject matter and practices used in general education across content areas.

        33. Ways to facilitate cognitive and communicative development in students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing (e.g., visual saliency) consistent with program philosophy.

        34. Techniques of stimulation and utilization of residual hearing in students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing consistent with program philosophy. (Low to High emphasis depending on philosphy)

        35. Research supported instructional strategies and practice for teaching students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.


      Skills:
       

        38.Select, design, produce, and utilize media, materials, and resources required to educate students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing under one or more of the existing modes or philosophies (e.g., bilingual-bicultural, total communication, aural/oral).

        39.Infuse speech skills into academic areas as consistent with mode or philosophy espoused and ability of student who is Deaf/Hard of Hearing. (Low emphasis to high depending on philosophy).

        40. Modify instructional process and classroom environment to meet the physical, cognitive, cultural, and communication needs of the child who is Deaf/Hard of Hearing (e.g., teachers's style, acoustic environment, availability of support services, availability of appropriate technologies).

        42. Apply first and second language teaching strategies (e.g., English through ASL or ESL) appropriate to the needs of the individual student who is Deaf/Hard of Hearing and consistent with program philosophy.


    V. PLANNING and MANAGING the TEACHING and LEARNING ENVIRONMENT KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS BEYOND COMMON CORE
     

      A. Knowledge
       
        45. Deaf cultural factors that may influence classroom management of students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

        46.Model programs, including career/vocational and transition, that have been effective for students with hearing losses.


      B. Skills

      47. Manage assistive/augmentative devices appropriate for students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing in learning environments.

      48. Select, adapt, and implement classroom management strategies for students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing that reflect understanding of each child's cultural needs, including primarily visual Deaf culture where appropriate.

      49.Design a classroom environment that maximizes opportunities for visually oriented and/or auditory learning in students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

      50. Plan and implement instruction for students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing and who have multiple disabilities and special needs.


    These standards are addressed to a lower degree:

    I. PHILOSOPHICAL, HISTORICAL, and LEGAL FOUNDATIONS of SPECIAL EDUCATION

    KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS BEYOND COMMON CORE
     

      A. Knowledge
       
        3. Variations in beliefs, traditions, and values across cultures and within society, and the effect of the relationships among children who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing, their families, and schooling.

        4. Issues in definition and identification procedures for individuals who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing (e.g., cultural vs medical perspective).

        5. "Rights and responsibilities" (e.g., Deaf Children's Bill of Rights) of parents, students, teachers, and schools as they relate to students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.


    II. CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNERS KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS BEYOND COMMON CORE
     

      A. Knowledge
       
        10.Communication features (visual, spatial, tactile, and/or auditory) salient to the learner who is Deaf/Hard of Hearing which are necessary to enhance cognitive, emotional and social development.

        11.Research in cognition related to children who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

        12. Cultural dimensions which being Deaf or Hard of Hearing may add to the life of a child.

        14. Effects of families and/or primary caregivers on the overall development of the child who is Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

        15. Effect that onset of hearing loss, age of identification, and provision of services have on the development of the child who is Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

        16. Impact of early comprehensible communication has on the development of the child who is Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

        17. Recognition that being deaf or hard of hearing alone does not necessarily preclude normal academic development, cognitive development, or communication ability.

        18. The differences in quality and quantity of incidental language/learning experiences which Deaf/Hard of Hearing children may experience.

        19.Effects of sensory input on development of language and cognition of children who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

        29. The procedures and technologies required to educate students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing under one or more of the existing modes or philosophies (consistent with program philosophy).

        31. Current theories of how languages (e.g., ASL and English) develop in children who are hearing and who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.
         

      B. Skills
         
        36.Demonstrate proficiency in the language(s) the beginning teacher will use to instruct students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

        37. Demonstrate characteristics of various existing communication modes used with students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

        43. Demonstrate ability to modify incidental language experiences to fit the visual and other sensory needs of children who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

        44.Provide appropriate activities for students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing to promote literacy in English and/or ASL.


    V. PLANNING and MANAGING the TEACHING and LEARNING ENVIRONMENT KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS BEYOND COMMON CORE
     

      A. Knowledge
       
        45. Deaf cultural factors that may influence classroom management of students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

        46.Model programs, including career/vocational and transition, that have been effective for students with
        hearing losses.

VI. Course Requirements

VII. Attendance Policy

VIII. Course Projects

Student are required to:
A. Participate in developing procedurally correct and educationally appropriate IEPs and /or IFSPs.

B. Prepare and display an interactive bulletin board.

C. Develop an instructional, thematic unit plan(s) to include:

1. Prepare a daily lesson plan(s) from the unit and present it to a class.

2. Develop and display an independent learning center as part of the instructional unit.

D. Read books, chapters, and journal articles related to the areas of study and will keep a written response journal of all the readings.

E. Develop a personal resource bank of instructional materials, resources, teaching strategies, media, and technology useful in teaching content subjects to deaf and hard-of-hearing students.

F. Analyze a curriculum guide or a published textbook series for a particular subject and write a report that should include a general description of the curriculum, a critical analysis of each of its parts (rationale, objectives, activities, supplementary materials, and evaluation methods) and general comments about the curriculum's strengths and weaknesses specific to the education of deaf and hard-of-hearing students.

G. Write a research paper based on at least seven articles and share one-page summary with the class.

IX. Suggested Texts and Resources (By the following categories: Deaf Education, General Curriculum & Instruction, Language, Math, Reading, Science, Social Studies, IEP, Bilingual)

Deaf Education:

    Bellis, T.J. (1996). Assessment and Management of Central Auditory Processing Disorders in the Educational Setting: From Science to Practice. San Diego: Singular Pub. Group.

    Bender, R.E. (1981). The Conquest of Deafness. Danville, IL: The Interstate Printers & Publishers.

    Butterwoth, R. R., & Flodin, M. (1995). The Perigee Visual Dictionary of Signing. NY: Berkeley.

    Bunch, G. O. (1987). The Curriculum and the Hearing Impaired Student.:Theoretical and Practical Considerations. Boston, MA: College-Hill Press.

    Cassie, R. & Wilson, E. (1995). Communication Breakdown Management During Cooperative Learning Activities by Mainstreamed Students with Hearing Losses. The Volta Review, 97 (2), 105-123.

    Cerra, K.K., et al. (1997). Fostering Reader Response and Developing Comprehension Strategies in Deaf/ Hard of Hearing Children. American Annals of the Deaf, 142, (5) , 379-385.

    Christensen, K.M. & Gilbert L.D. (1993). Multicultural Issues in Deafness. White Plains, NY: Longman.

    Gillespie, C. W. & Twasdosz, S. (1996). Survey of Literacy Environments and Practices in Residences at Schools for the Deaf. American Annals for the Deaf, 141(3), 224-230.

    Hasenstab, M.S., Horner, J.S. (1982). Comprehensive Intervention with Hearing Impaired Infants and Preschool Children. Rockville, Maryland: Aspen Systems.

    Hedge, M. N. (1995). Introduction to Communication Disorders. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

    Heefner, D. & Shaw, P. (1996). Assessing the Written Narratives of Deaf Students Using the Six Trait Analytical Scale. The Volta Review, 98(1), 147-168.

    Heller, L; Manner, D.; Pavur, D. & Wagner, K. (1998). Let's All Sign! Enhancing Language Development in an Inclusive Preschool. TeachingExceptional Children, 30, 50-53

    Kemp, M. (1998). "Why is Learning American Sign Language a Challenge?" American Annals of the Deaf. 143 255-259.

    Lederberg, A. R. & Everhart, V. S. (1998). Communication between Deaf Children and Their Hearing Mothers: The Role of Language, Gesture, and Vocalizations. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 41(4), 887-899.

    Lowenbraus, S., Appelman, K., & Callahan, J. (1980). Teaching the Hearing Impaired. Columbus, OH: Merrill Publishing Co.

    Luetke-Stahlman, B. (1996). Communication Tips for General Educators Teaching Children Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. CAEDHH Journal, 22(1), 9-17.

    Luetke-Stahlman, B. (1998). Language Across the Curriulum When Students are Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing. Hillsboro, OR: Butte Publications, Inc.

    Luetke-Stahlman, B. (1998). Language Issues in Deaf Education. Hillsboro, OR: Butte

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara & John Luckner (1991). Effectively Educating Students with Hearing Impairments. New York: Longman.

    Luetke-Stahlman, B. & Stryker, D. (1999). The Teaming of General Educators and Teachers of the Deaf: Part II. Perspectives in Education of the Deaf, 139(3), 358-370.

    Mahshie, S. M. (1995). Educating Deaf Children Bilingually. Washington, DC: Gallaudet.

    Martin, D. S., & Mobley, R. T. (Eds.). (1992).  Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Teacher Education in Deafness. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University.

    Mason, D. & Ewoldt, C. (1996). Whole Language and Deaf Bilingual Bicultural Education-- Naturally. American Annals of the Deaf, 141(4), 293-298.

    McNally, P. L., Rose, S., & Quigley. S. P. (1994). Language Learning Practices with Deaf Children. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

    Moores, D. F. (1997). Psycholinguistics and Deafness. American Annals of the Deaf, 142(3), 80-89.

    Moores, Donald F. (1996). Educating the Deaf: Psychology, Principles, and Practices. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co.

    Morgan, A. & Vernon, M. (1994). A Guide to the Diagnosis of learning

    Disabilities in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children and Adults. American Annals of the Deaf, 139(3), 358-370.

    National Association of State Directors of Special Education. (1992). Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students Educational Guidelines. Alexandria, VA: Author.

    Padden, C. & Humphries, T. (1988). Deaf in America: Voices from a Culture. Cambridge, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co.

    Parasins, L. A. (1996). Cultural and Language Diversity and the Deaf Experience. New York. NY: Cambridge University Press.

    Paul, P. V. (1990). Education and Deafness. White Plains, NY: Longman.

    Paul, P, V. & Jackson, D. W. (1993). Toward a Psychology of Deafness. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

    Powers, G., & Saskiewicz J.A. (1998). A Comparison Study of Educational Involvement of Hearing Parents of Deaf and Hearing Children of Elementary School Age. American Annals of the Deaf V. 143 (1), 35-39.

    Reagan, T. (1985). The Deaf as a Linguistic Minority: Educational Considerations. Harvard Educational Review, 55(3), 265-277.

    Ross, M., Brackett D., & Maxon A. (1991). Assessment and Management of Mainstreamed Hearing-Impaired Children. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

    Ruchter, A., et al. (1984). Comprehension of Idioms by Hearing-Impaired Students. The Volta Review . V. 86 (1), 7-19.

    Sanders, D. M. (1988). Teaching Deaf Children: Techniques and Methods. Boston: College Hill Press.

    Schwartz, S. (Ed.) (1987). Choices in Deafness: A Parents Guide. Rockville, MD: Woodbine House.

    Stewart, D. (1993). Bi Bi to MCE? American Annals of the Deaf, 138, 331-337.

    Stuckless, R. (1994). Educational Applications of Technology for Deaf Students. [Special Issue]. American Annals of the Deaf, 139.

    Tye-Murray, N. (1993). Communication Training for Hearing-Impaired Children and Teenagers: Speechreading, Listening, and Using Repair Strategies. Austin TX.: Pro Ed.

    Tyler, R. S., & Schum D. (Ed.) (1995). Assistive Devices for Persons with Hearing Impairment. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

    Weber, J. (1997). Teacher Support in Mainstreaming Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Rural Saskatchewan, Canada: A Pilot Project. CAEDHH Journal, 23(1), 40-48.

    Wheeler, L., & Griffin, H. C. (1997). Am Movement-based Approach to Language Development in Children Who are Deaf-Blind. American Annals of the Deaf, 142(5), 387-390.

    Wilcox, S. (1989). American Deaf Culture. Silver Springs, MD: Linstock Press.

    Williams, C. L. (1995). Preschool Teachers' Theoretical and Pedagogical Stances on the Language and Literacy Development of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children: Implications for Teacher Preparation and In-service Programs. American Annals of the Deaf, 140(1), 56-64.

    Yoshinaga-Itano, C,. & Downey, D.M. (1996). Development of School-aged Deaf, Hard-of-Hearing, and Normally Hearing Students' Written Language. Volta Review, 98(1), 3-7.

    Yoshinaga-Itano, C. (1996). Can Lexical/Semantic Skills Differentiate Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Readers and Non-Readers? The Volta Review, 98(1), 36-63.

    Yoshinaga-Itano, C. & Downey, D.M. (1996). Analyzing Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Students Written Metacognitive Strategies and Story-Grammar Propositions. The Volta Review, 98(1), 63-64.

    Youdelman, K,. & Messerly, C. (1996). Computer-assisted Notetaking for Mainstreamed Hearing-Impaired Students. The Volta Review, 98(4), 191-197.

    ZieZiula, F. R. (1993). Assessment of Hearing Impaired People. Washington, DC: Gallaudet College.

General Curriculum and Instruction:

    Anderson, W., Chitwood. S.& Hayden, D. (1997). Negotiating the Special Education Maze. Rockville, MD: Woodbine House.

    Armstrong, T. (1994). Multiple Intelligences in the classroom. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

    Armstrong, D. G. (1989). Developing and Documenting the Curriculum. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (1996). Only the Best, The Annual Guide to the Highest-Rated Educational Software and Multimedia. Alexandria, VA: author.

    Baker, D., Semple, C., & Stead, T. (1990). How Big is the Moon?  Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

    Borich, G. D.. (1996/2000). Effective Teaching Methods (4th ed.). Edgewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.

    Brennan, W K.. (1986). Curriculum for Special Needs. Philadelphia, PA: Open University Press.

    Buzzell, J. B. & Piazza, R. (1994). Case Studies for Teaching Special Needs and At-Rise Competence. (2nd ed.). New York: Macmillan Publishers.

    Clark, L. H. & Starr, I. S.. (1986). Secondary and Middle School Teaching Methods. (5th ed.). New York: Macmillan Publishers.

    Decker, N. & Montandon, B. (1984). Captioned Media in the Classroom. Springfield, MD: National Association of the Deaf.

    Dick, W, & Carey, L. The Systematic Design of Instruction. (4th ed.). New York: Harper Collins College Publishers.

    Doll, R. C. (1996). Curriculum Improvement, Decision making and Process. (9th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

    Drake, S. M.. (1993). Planning Integrated Curriculum: The Call to Adventure. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

    Ellis, A. K., Mackey, J. A., & Glenn, A. D. (1988). The School Curriculum. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

    Emmers, A. P. (1981). After the Lesson Plan. New York: Teacher College Press.

    Forcier, R. C. (1996). The Computer as a Productivity Tool in Education. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

    Friend, M,. & Bursuck, D. (1999). Including Students with Special Needs. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

    Gamberg, R., Kwak, W., Hutchings, M., & Altheim, J. (1988). Learning and Logving It. Theme Studies in the Classroom. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

    George, P. S., Stevenson, C., Thomason, J., & Beane, J. (1992). The Middle School-and Beyond. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

    Heath, G. L. (1973). The New Teacher, Changing Patterns of Authority and Responsibility. New York: Harper & Row.

    Henderson, J. G. (1996). Reflective Teaching, The Study of Your Constructive Practices. (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

    Hunter, M. (1976). Improved Instruction. El Segundo, CA: TIP Publications.

    Joseph, P. B. & Burnaford, G. E. (1994). Images of Schoolteachers in Twentieth Century America. New York: St. Martin's Press.

    Kellough, R. D.. (1994). A Resource Guide for Teaching: K-12. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing.

    Kendall Demonstration Elementary School Preschool Curriculum Guide (2nd edition). (1989). Washington, DC: Gallaudet.

    Klingele, W. E. (1987). Classroom, Laboratory, and Clinical Ativities for Teacher Education. Newton, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

    Kluwin, T., Moores, D,. & Gaustad, M. (1992) Toward Effective Public School Programs for Deaf Students. NY: Teachers College Press.

    Kochendorfer, L. (1994). Becoming a Reflective Teacher. National Education Association.

    Kochendorfer, L. (1994). Becoming a Reflective Teacher. Washington, DC: National Education Association.

    Lazear, D. (1991). Seven Ways of Knowing: Teaching for Multiple Intelligences (2nd ed.). Arlington Heights, IL: IRI/Skylight Training and Publishing.

    Lazear, D. (1999). Eight Ways of Teaching: The Artistry of Teaching with Multiple Intelligences (3rd ed.). Arlington heights, IL: IRI/Skylight Training and Publishing.

    Levine, J. M. (1989). Secondary Instruction. A Manual for Classroom Teaching. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

    Lorber, M. A., & Pierce, W. D. (1990). Objective, Methods, and Evaluation for Secondary Teaching. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

    Lounsbury, J. H. (Ed.). (1992). Connecting the Curriculum Through Interdisciplinary Instruction. Columbus, OH: National Middle School Association.

    Lundeen, C., & Lundeen, D. J. (1993). Effectiveness of Mainstreaming with Collaborative Teaching. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association: Anaheim, CA.

    Lyman, L. Foyle, H. C., & Azwell, T. S. (1993). Cooperative Learning in the CLassroom. National Education Association.

    Lytle, R. R., & Rovins, M.R. Reforming Deaf Education. American Annals of the Deaf. V.142 (1), 7-15.

    Lyman, L., Foyle, H., & Azwell, T. (1993) Cooperative Learning in the Classroom. Washington, DC: National Education Association.

    Martin, D. S. (Ed) (1985). Cognition, Education, and Deafness. Washington, DC: Gallaudet.

    Martin, D. S. (1989). Curriculum Leadership: Case Studies for Program Practioners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

    Martin, D.S. (Ed.) (1991). Advances in Cognition, Education and Deafness. Washington DC: Gallaudet.

    Marvin, C. & Hintberg, M. (1995). Let's Pretend! A Semantic

    Analysis of Preschool Children's Play. Journal of Children’s Communication Development, 17(2), 1-10.

    Mauk, G., & Mauk, P. (1993). Compounding the Challenge: Young Deaf Children and Learning Disabilities. Perspectives in Education and Deafness, 12(2), 12-18.

    Maurer, R. M. (1994). Designating Interdisciplinary Curriculum in Middle, Junior High and High Schools. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

    McCutcheon, G. (1995). Developing the Curriculum. Solo and Group Deliberation. White Plains, NY: Longman.

    McNeil, J. D. (1985). Curriculum: A Comprehensive Introduction. Boson: Little Brown & Company.

    Orlich, D. C. et al. (1985). Teaching Strategies. A Guide to Better Instruction. (2nd ed.). Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath & Company.

    Orlich, D., Harder, R., Callahan, R., & Gibson, H (1998). Teaching Strategies. A Guide to Better Instruction (5th edition). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

    Ornstein, A. C., & Behar, L. S. (1995). Contemporary Issues in Curriculum. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

    Ornstein, A. C., & Hunkins, F. P. (1988). Curriculum: Foundations, Principles, and Issues. London: Prentice Hall.

    Pasanella, A. (1978). Individualized Educational Programming. San Juan Capistrano, CA: Exceptional Press.

    Pash, M., Langer, G., Gardner, T., Starko, A., & Moody, C. (1995). Teaching as Decision Making. White Plains, NY: Longman.

    Pattillo, J., & Vaugn, E. (1992). Learning Centers for Child-Centered Classrooms. Washington, DC: National Education Association.

    Phi Delta Kappan (1995). Values and the Schools. Bloomington, IN: Core Values Project.

    Pierangelo, R. (1994). A Survival Kit for the Special Education Teacher. West Nyack, NY: The Center for Applied Research in Education.

    Pressley, M., et al. (1990). Cognitive Strategy Instruction That Really Improves Children’s Academic Performance. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.

    Prizzi, E., & Hoffman, J. (1984). Interactive Bulletin Boards. Belmont, CA: David S. Lake Publishers.

    Prizzi, E. & Hoffman, J. (1981). Teaching of the Wall. Belmont, CA: David S. Lake Publishers.

    Public Law 94-142: The Education of all Handicapped Children Act of 1975.

    Public Law 101-336: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1990.

    Putman, J. (1993). The Process of Cooperative Learning. In J. Putman (Ed.), Cooperative Learning and Strategies for Inclusion. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

    Posner, C. J. (1992). Analyzing the Curriculum. NY: McGraw-Hill.

    Stevenson, C. & Carr, J. F. (Eds.). (1993). Integrated Studies in the Middle Grades. NY: Teachers College Press.

    Wong, H. K., & Wong, R T.. (1998). How to be an Effective Teacher: The First Days of School. Mountain View, CA: Harry K. Wong Publishing, Inc.

    Reiser, R. S., & Dick, W. (1996). Instructional Planning. A Guide for Teachers (2nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

    Roberts, P. L., & Kellough, R. D. (1996). A Guide for Developing an Interdisciplinary Thematic Unit. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

    Ross, D. D., Bondy, E., & Kyle, D. W. (1993). Reflective Teaching for Student Empowerment. Elementary Curriculum and Methods. New York: Macmillan.

    Ryan, K., & Cooper, J. M. (1992). Kaleidoscope: Readings in Education. (6th ed.). Boson: Houghton Mifflin.

    Salend, S. J. (1994). Effective Mainstreaming: Creating Inclusive Classrooms. New York: Macmillan.

    Smith, Mary D. (1997). The Art of Itinerant Teaching. Hillsboro, OR: Butte

    Sowell, E. J. (1996). Curriculum. An Integrative Introduction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

    Stellers, J., Vasa, S. & Little, J. (1976). Introduction to Diagnostic-Prescriptive Teaching and Programming. San Juan Capistrano, CA: Exceptional Press.

    Stevenson, C., & Carr, J. F. (Eds.)(1993). Integrated Studies in the Middle Grades. "Dancing Through the Walls". New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.

    Strickland, B. & Turnbull, A. (1990). Developing and Implementing Individualized Education Programs. Columbus, OH: Merrill Publishing

    Unruh, G. G., & Unruh, A. (1984). Curriculum Development Problems, Processes, and Progress. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan Publishing

    Villa, R. A. (1996). Teacher and Administrator Perceptions of Heterogeneous Education. Exceptional Children, 63(1), 29-46.

    Walker, D. (1990). Fundamentals of Curriculum. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

    Wasserman, S. (1993). Getting Down to Cases. New York: Teachers College Press.

    Wiles, J,. & Bondi, J. (1986). The Essential Middle School. Tampa, FL: Wiles, Bondi & Associates.

    Wynne, E. A., & Ryan K. (1993). Reclaiming Our Schools: A Handbook on Teaching Character, Academics, and Discipline. New York: Macmillan.

    Yarger, C. (1996). Notetaking Programs: Starting Out Right! Perspectives in Education and Deafness, 15(1), 6-8, 20.

Assessment:

    Bradley-Johnson, S., & Evans, L. (1991). Psychoeducational Assessment of Hearing Impaired Students: Infancy Through High School. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

    Choate, J. S. et al. (1995). Curriculum-based Assessment and Programming. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

    Clack, K. (1996). Exploring Assessment Alternatives for Deaf Students. Perspectives in Education and Deafness, 14(4), 5-8.

    Hafer, J. C. (1996). Developmental Assessment for the Young Set: The Play's the Thing. Perspectives in Education and Deafness, 14(4), 8-11.

    Venn, J. (1994). Assessment of Students with Special Needs. New York, NY: MacMillan

    White, A., & Tripoli, L. (1996). Classroom Assessment of the Use of Compact Language Drills: A Technique Borrowed from Foreign Language Teaching. American Annals of the Deaf, 141(5), 346-350.

Language:

    Abrams, M. (1996). Surround Them with Language. Perspectives in Eduation and Deafness, 14(3), 12-18.

    Beck, A R. (1995). Language Assessment Methods for Three Age Groups of Children. Journal of Children’s Communication Development, 17(2), 57-66.

    Bernstein, D., & Tregerman-Farber, E. (1997). Language and Communication Disorders in Children. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

    Bland, L., & Prelock, P. (1995). Effects of Collaboration on Language Performance. Journal of Children’s Communication Development, 17(2), 31-38.

    Brown, H., & Mathie, V. (1990). Inside Whole Language: A Classroom View. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

    Cairns, H. S. (1996). The Acquisition of Language (2nd ed.) Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

    Doyle, E., & Murphy, L. (1995). Discourse-based Language Intervention: An Efficacy Study. Journal of Children’s Communication Development. 17(2), 11-22.

    Ewoldt, C., & Saulnier, K. (1995). Developmental Activities for Teaching Writing. Perspectives in Education and Deafness, 13(3), 9-12.

    French, M. (1996). So You Want to Assess Reading? Perspectives in Education and Deafness, 14(3), 18-22.

    Fry, E.B., Kress, J.E., & Fountoukidis, D.L. (1993). The Reading Teacher’s Book of Lists. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice

Hall.

    Gillespie, C. W., & Twasdosz, S. (1996). Survey of Literacy Environments and Practices in Residences at Schools for the Deaf. American Annals for the Deaf, 141(3), 224-230.

    Hagood, B. (1996). Reading and Writing with Help from Story Grammar. Teaching Exceptional Children, 29(4), 10-15.

    Hardison, L. E. (1995). Young Children, Communication, and Learning. The Volta Review, 97(5), 85-94.

    Heefner, D. & Shaw, P. (1996). Assessing the Written Narratives of Deaf Students Using the Six Trait Analytical Scale. The Volta Review, 98(1), 147-168.

    Heller, L. Manner, D. Pavur, D. & Wagner, K. (1998). Let's All Sign! Enhancing Language Development in an Inclusive Preschool. Teaching Exceptional Children, 30(3), 50-53.

    Jones, B. (1997). Characteristics and Practices of Sign Language Interpreters in Inclusive Education Programs. Exceptional Children, 63(2), 257-268.

    Katasse, C. (1997). Deaf Children and English. Perspectives in Education and Deafness, 15(3), 2-4.

    Kluwin, T. N. (1998). Getting Hearing and Deaf Students to Write to Each Other Through Dialogue Journals. Teaching Exceptional Children, 28(2), 50-53.

    Kretschmer, R., (Ed.). (1985). Learning to Write and Writing to Learn. Washington, DC.: A. G. Bell.

    Kretschmer, R. (1982). Reading and the Hearing Impaired Individual. Washington, DC: Alexander Graham Bell

    LaSasso, C.J., & Mobley R.T., (1997). National Survey of Reading Instruction for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in the U.S. The Volta Review V.99, (1), 31-58.

    Luckner, J. L. (Ed.). (1996). Written Language Assessment and Intervention: Links to Literacy. The Volta Review, 98(1).

    Luetke-Stahlman, B. (1999). Language Across the Curriculum the When Students are Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing. Hillsboro, OR: Butte

    Luetke-Stahlman, B. (1999). Language Issues in Deaf Education. Hillsboro, OR: Butte.

    Luetke-Stahlman, B., & Luckner J. (1991). Effectively Educating Students with Hearing Impairments. White Plains, NY: Longman..

    Marlatt, E. A. (1996). ENGI: An Approach to Teach Writing Through Computers. American Annals for the Deaf, 141(3), 240-244.

    Mason, D., & Ewoldt, C. (1996). Whole Language and Deaf Bilingual Bicultural Education-- Naturally. American Annals of the Deaf, 141(4), 293-298.

    McLaughlin, S. (1998). Introduction to Language Development. San Diego, CA: Singular

    McNally, P. L., Rose, S., & Quigley. S. P. (1994). Language Learning Practices with Deaf Children. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

    Merritt, D., & Culatta, B. (1998). Language Intervention in the Classroom. San Diego, CA: Singular

    Nippold, M. A. Later Language Development—The School-age and Adolescent Years. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

    Northern, Jerry L. The Personal Computer for Speech, Language, and Hearing Professionals. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co.

    Parasins, L. A. (1996). Cultural and Language Diversity and the Deaf Experience. New York. NY: Cambridge University Press.

    Wheeler, L. & Griffin, H. C. (1997). Am Movement-based Approach to Language Development in Children Who are Deaf-Blind. American Annals of the Deaf, 142(5), 387-390.

    Williams, C. L. (1995). Preschool Teachers' Theoretical and Pedagogical Stances on the Language and Literacy Development of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children: Implications for Teacher Preparation and In-service Programs. American Annals of the Deaf, 140(1), 56-64.

    Yoshinaga-Itano, C. (1996). Can Lexical/Semantic Skills Differentiate Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Readers and Non-Readers? The Volta Review, 98(1), 36-63.

    Yoshinaga-Itano, C., & Downey, D.M. (1996). Analyzing Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Students Written Metacognitive Strategies and Story-Grammar Propositions. The Volta Review, 98(1), 63-64.

    Sanger, D. D. (1995). Early Referral of School Age Children with Language Problems. Journal of Children’s Communication Development, 16(2), 3-9.

    Sauder, C. (1995). That Was Then , This Is Now, Transitioning to a Whole Language Classroom. The Volta Review, 97(5), 67-85.

    Schirmer, B.R., (1994). Language and Literacy Development in Children who are Deaf. New York, NY: MacMillan

    Schneiderman, E., & Wood, G. (1996). Dialogue Journal Writing: An Interactive Tool for Deaf Students and Teachers in Training. Perspectives in Education and Deafness, 14(4), 19-20.

    Skarakis-Doyle, E., & Murphy, L. (1995). Discourse-based Language Intervention: An Efficacy Study. Journal of Children’s Communication Development, 17(2), 11-22.

    Tibbits, D. F. (1995). Language Intervention Beyond the Primary Grades for Clinicians by Clinicians. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

    Turner, N,. & Traxler, M. (1997). Children's Literature for the Primary Inclusive Classroom: Increasing Understanding of Children with Hearing Impairments. American Annals of the Deaf, 142(5), 350-355.

    Welchman-Tischler, R. (1992). How to Use Children’s Literature to Teach Mathematics. NCTM: Reston, VA.

    Whitesell, K., & Klein, H. L. (1995). Facilitating Language and Learning via Scripts. The Volta Review, 97(5), 117-128.

    Yarger, C. (1996). An Examination of the Test of Written Language-3. The Volta Review, 98(1), 211-215.

    Zobl, H. (1995). Converging Evidence for the 'Acquisition-Learning' Distinction. Applied Linguistics, 16(1), 352-50.

Math:

    Baroody, A. J. (1993). Problem Solving, Reasoning, and Communicating (K-8): Helping Children Think Mathematically. NY: MacMillan.

    Brickmore-Brand, J (1993). Language in Mathematics. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

    Countryman, J. (1992). Writing to Learn Mathematics: Strategies that Work. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

    Kamii, Constance. (1992). Number in Preschool & Kindergarten. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

    Kamii, C. (1989). Young Children Continue to Reinvent Arithmetic 2nd Grade. NY: Teachers College, Columbia University.

    Kamii, C. (1994). Young Children Continue to Reinvent Arithmetic 3rd Grade. NY: Teachers College, Columbia University.

    Mason, V. (1988).Kendall Demonstration Elementary School Mathematics Curriculum Guide (2nd Edition). Washington, DC: Gallaudet.

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1989). Curriculum & Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, VA: NCTM.

    Pagliaro, C. (1998). Mathematics Reform in the Education of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students. American Annals of the Deaf. 143, (1), 22-28.

    Stenmark, J. K., Thompson, V., & Cossey, R. (1986). Family Math. Berkeley, CA: Regents.

    Thornton, C.,et al. (1983). Teaching Mathematics to Children with Special Needs. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co..

    Welchman-Tischler, R. (1992). How to Use Children’s Literature to Teach Mathematics. NCTM: Reston, VA.

Bilingual:

    Mahshie, S. M.. (1995). Educating Deaf Children Bilingually. Washington, DC: Gallaudet.

IEP:

    School, B. & Cooper, A. (1992). The IEP Primer and the Individualized Program. Nova, CA: Academic Therapy Publications.

Science:

    Doris, E. (1991). Doing What Scientists Do. Children Learn to Investigate Their World. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

    Gillespie, S. (1988) Kendall Demonstration Elementary School Science Curriculum Guide (2nd edition). Washington, DC: Gallaudet.

    Renner, J. W., & Marek, E. A. (1988). The Learning Cycle and Elementary School Science Teaching. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

    Scott, J. (Ed.). (1993). Science and Language Links: Classroom Implications. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Social Studies:

    Mahoney, D. (1986) KDES Social Studies Curriculum Guide. Washington, DC: Gallaudet

    Michael, S.J.U. (1996). Social Studies for Children. New York: Allyn & Bacon.

    Taba, H., Durkin, M., Fraenkel, J., & McNaugton, A. (1971). A Teacher’s Handbook to Elementary Social Studies. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.