Key Words: Curriculum Materials, K-3, Literacy
Submitted By: Mary Ann Merendino
Uploaded By: Nancy Maynard
(a) Topic - Reading
(b) Area of concern - teaching strategies for a non-reading, hearing-impaired student
Andrews, J.F. and Mason, J.M. (1986). How do deaf children learn about prereading? American Annals of the Deaf, 131(7), 210-216.
This article addresses securing prereading skills for hearing- impaired students, both at home and at school. Modeling, discussing, guided reading and supervised practice were implemented within the technique of reciprocal teaching. Data shows that pre-reading skills attend when hearing-impaired students matched their existing linguistic knowledge of sign language constructs to print, thus connecting manual language with meaning to print.
Andrews, J.F. (1988). Deaf children's acquisition of prereading skills using the reciprocal teaching procedure. Exceptional Children, 54(4), 349-355.
This article emphasizes four pre-reading skills to be modelled by the teacher through reciprocal teaching--finger spelling, book reading, story reading and word recognition. The teacher then prompts and shapes the student's participation through corrective feedback using four specific steps:
1. modeling of story reading
2. discussion of three to five target signs
3. guided reading using target signs with printed words in story context
4. supervised practice
Griffith, P.L. and Ripich, D.N. (1988). Story structure recall in hearing-impaired, learning-disabled and nondisabled children. American Annals of the Deaf, ___(3), 43-50.
This article dictates that story retelling abilities are developmental through knowledge of story content. The building of text and mental schemata are important in teaching hearing-impaired students to read as many have limited experiences with stories prior to learning to read. Interestingly, the hearing-impaired subjects were better able to generate stories or obtain information with the use of pictures.
Schlichter, C.L. (1992). Good books, better thinking. Teaching Pre K-8, 22(7), 52-54.
Through the use of fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration, students are encouraged to extend stories, offering opportunities for creative thinking through the use of the students' own imagination. Examples of books and corresponding creative thinking probes are provided.
(e) possible implications
The importance of learning prereading skills at home is critical to the development of reading skills. While teachers may be able to develop effective strategies in the classroom, the implications are such that emphasis must be placed on parental involvement. This can be accomplished through homework in which the student must request assistance of the parent, for example reading to each other, securing library books, creating a list of favorite books or detailing family history. The use of finger spelling and manual signs are reading-related activities which can relate communicative interactions between the student and the book, along with parents, teachers or peers.
Awareness of all types of print is a needed component in both the home and the classroom. Pointing out letters and words within the student's environment, reading and creating stories, discussions, role playing, explanations, the development of creative and critical thinking - all must be considered as part of the base which supports the need to continually practice reading, if not in the home, then to be implemented within each subject's lesson plans.
Also, settings at school must adapt to a more comfortable and inviting reading atmosphere.
LEA - set aside specific time (10 minutes, daily) to allow student to dictate at least one thought/sentence about a topic of his choice, to be written verbatim in a journal/diary, leaving room for illustrations.
Incorporate wordless books into lessons for student to create dialogue.
Involve parents by asking them to journal an on-going family history which student can then bring to school to be read, signed and illustrated.
File box for student to log site words learned per story written and/or drawn on index cards. Weekly review by playing board game for word recognition, story title, story content, comparing same words found in different stories.
Copy pages from the anti-coloring book to encourage imagination in print and art. Student seems to have an ability for art and details in drawing.
To get a grasp of the structures of stories, involve story telling through the efforts of:
1. a Deaf peer/adult signing ASL
2. volunteers from the high school - athletes, club members, etc.
3. student retelling stories through gesture
4. videotape the story tellers for reviewing
5. ASL videos, available from Gallaudet
Incorporate a reading corner in the classroom where student may go during free time (or when he's roaming).
Enlist student's help with putting up bulletin boards.
Correspondence with Michael Jordan - Bulls' public relations office, fan club.
Have students read stories to each other.
Attached are other recommended readings:
teaching idioms/using figurative language
Mary Ann Merendino (A:MAM.ASC)
Designing Instruction for the Total Communication Setting
Harold Johnson, Professor
Kent State University
Kent, Ohio 44242