Relative Clause - Final (Modifies Direct Object)

I Explanation

The relative clause transformation represents a way of embedding one sentence in another to allow for the expression of two main ideas within one sentence.
            The girl chased the boy.  The boy took the doll.

            The girl chased the boy who took the doll.

A relative clause directly follows a direct object in the main sentence.

            The girl  chased  the boy  who took the doll.
             subject       verb      D.O.       relative clause

The semantic purpose of the relative clause is to provide the additional information about the person, time or things(s) being discussed to aid in comprehension.

            The girl chased the boy.                     The boy took the doll.
                                                                       The boy read his book.
                                                                       The boy played guitar.
            (Which boy did the girl chase?)
            The girl chased the boy who took the doll.

A relative clause is introduced by a relative pronoun. Relative Pronouns

"Who" replaces a human noun, subject or object.
        I know a girl who plays in the park.
"Whom" replaces a human noun as an object.
        I met the man whom you met last week.
"Which" replaces a non-human houn as subject or object.
        We go to a school which is under construction.
"That" replaces a human or non-human noun as subject or object.
        I like the dinner that you made.
"Whose" functions as a possessive determiner.
        I know a man whose house is falling down.

To combine the two sentences, the final noun in the main sentence must be the same as the subject of the sentence to be embedded. By replacing the subject of the second sentence with a relative pronoun you can embed the two sentences.

Main Sentence  
The girl chased the boy.
Sentence to be Embedded  
The boy took the doll.
Final Noun  
The girl chased the boy
Subject changed to relative pronoun  
The boy took the doll.  

Emedded Sentence
The girl chased the boy who took the doll.

II Content Area

Comparison of Alaska and Hawaii, within the Science and Social Studies curriculum. The objective is to get the students to use Relative Clauses in participating or describing each activity.

III Core Activities

Diorama - The class will be broken up into two groups, one focusing on Hawaii and the other on Alaska. Within each group, there will be groups of two or three students, each working on producing a diorama to show something specific about their state. Focus on Science (weather, landscape, animals, etc.)
Bulletin Boards - The previous state groups will switch, so that anyone that worked on Hawaii will now work on Alaska and vice versa. The groups will work as a whole to create informational bulletin boards for the school to appreciate. Focus on Social Studies (people, houses, rituals, etc.)
Volcanoes - The previous activities focused on the differences between the states. This activity will focus on the similarity the states share: volcanoes. Children will be able to crete their own volcano from paper mache or clay.

IV Lesson Plan


Shoe boxes
Construction paper


Students will be able to use relative clauses in their descriptions of their dioramas with 80% accuracy.


"Last week during English class we learned about Relative Clauses and we have been working all month on the states in Social Studies."


"This week we are going to use Relative Clauses to compare Alaska to Hawaii. Today you'll make a diorama of one of these states."


"Who can remember what a relative clause is?"
        expected response

"Who can tell me some differences between Alaska and Hawaii?"
        write answers on the blackboard
        objective is to have students use relative clauses in their sentences

"What are some similarities between Alaska and Hawaii?"

"Does anyone know what a diorama is?"
        expected response
        teacher shows class the example of a diorama that was previously made

"We have books on Hawaii and Alaska in the class library. We have shoe boxes on the tble along with scissors, blue and constructions paper. Half of the class will work on creating a diorama about Hawaii while the other half will work on creating a diorama about Alaska."

teacher will partner up the class in pairs. One stronger student with one weker student whenever possible. Each pair will pull a piece of paper out of a hat. Half will say Alaska and the other half Hawaii.

"Look through the books in our library and find one thing about your state that you did not already know and include that in your diorama. This could be an animal, climate, the way people live, particular landmark, etc."


Students will work on creating a diorama and teacher will circulate and provide help where needed.


There will be none unless a student needs more time.


Each group will go to the front of the class and describe their diorama using Relative Clauses. When that is completed the teacher will then summarize what has been taught that day.
Expected responses could include:
        "My diorama is of the animals who live in Alaska."

"We have learned a lot about Alaska and Hawaii today. I really enjoyed all of your dioramas. You did a spectacular job using Relative Clauses."

IV Resources

None included.

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