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Mainstreaming

Key Words: Information, Deafness Related Issues, Deaf Education

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Date: Thu, 27 Jun 1996 10:17:19 -0400

Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: CXSNDT@RITVAX.ISC.RIT.EDU

Subject: mainstreaming???help!!!!

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

In-Reply-To: "Your message dated Fri, 07 Jun 1996 21:12:38 +0600" <2.2.16.19960607151238.3d0f26da@pop.njcc.com>

Good day!!!

I am needing some help, advice and willing Edudeafers to assist in my work back in South Africa!!!

Yesterday I phoned home to find out that South Africa is deciding to mainstream all special Ed (following in America's footsteps). Please do not get me wrong, I am not against mainstreaming, but I realize that for most Deaf kids this has not seemed to work (a general response I have received from researchers across USA during my year here). The people in charge will be making decisions without even considering specialists, researchers and teachers!!!! let alone feedback from USA on how mainstreaming did in Deaf Ed......

What I am needing:

1)People who disagree to give me some positive support so that I do not go home in 10 days too depressed!!

2)People who agree with me to give me reasons and examples of mainstreaming failing in Deaf ed...along with references and studies... (ammunition for me...smile)

3)Willing people who will write to South Africa and support change in Spec Ed (especially Deaf education): Accept Sign language as an offical language, train teachers of the Deaf etc etc

I am challenging as many people as possible to write to Pres Nelson Mandela, Education Minister Sibusisu Bengu and Region Education Director Mary Metcalf to support:

Equal Education for Deaf children in South Africa in schools with teachers that are trained to be teachers of the Deaf. And that the 1.6 million Deaf people in our country that use South African Sign Language as a first language, have the right to be educated in their first language....

Please excuse the 'rambling-effect' of this note...just thought I'd get it out as sooon as possible.

For people who are interested in writing:

President Nelson Mandela
Office of the President
Union Buildings
Private Bag X1000
Pretoria, 0001
South Africa

Dr Sibusisu Bengu and Mary Metcalf
Office of the President
Minister of Education
Private Bag X1000
Pretoria, 0001
South Africa

I am looking forward to your responses and support (both + and -) Please respond to me at : cxsndt@ritvax.isc.rit.edu

Thanks in advance!!!!

Claudine

Document 2 of 17

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Date: Thu, 27 Jun 1996 14:31:53 -0400

Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: Linda Semesky

Subject: Re: mainstreaming???help!!!!

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

Hi Claudine,

In both the American Disabilities Act (ADA) and IDEA (forget acronym...something like Individual with Disabilities Education Act), the Federal Regulations in the US specifically say that putting all children in regular ed classrooms is not appropriate and that in some cases, this is not the least restrictive environment, especially for children who are deaf and use ASL.

One thing that everyone has forgotten in passing all of these acts requiring mainstreaming is the tremendous cost to do it right! The government mandates that the states and their subcomponents implement inclusion, but provide no significant funding. Yes, a deaf child can be mainstreamed in a regular classroom. However, at a minimum, he/she will require a teacher that is also fluent in ASL or SEE which is a rare bird. So, at a minimum, an interpreter will be required for that child. And/or an educational assistant who signs. Or a coteacher who is a teacher of the deaf. Speech pathology services, audiology services and psychological services geared towards the deaf will also be required. Schools will need to have closed captioned TVs if they use them for education. All of this just for one child, if it is to be done right! The theory is terrific, however, it is totally misapplied by the majority of American schools due to lack of funding! So, often children would be better off in a self contained environment if the alternative is to be dropped into a regular ed setting without proper support services. That is the critical variable...SUPPORT SERVICES. You can achieve inclusion of almost every child if you are willing to provide the massive one-on-one services that some children may need.

Well, gotta run and check on kids outside in our kiddie pool!

Linda S.

Document 3 of 17

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Date: Sat, 29 Jun 1996 16:07:15 -0400

Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: Christofer deHahn

Subject: Re: mainstreaming???help!!!!

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

> A deaf child can be mainstreamed in a regular classroom. However, at a minimum, he/she will require a teacher that is also fluent in ASL or SEE which is a rare bird.

The last sentence is what I disagreed with. Her view was a myopic view of deaf education. Some kids do not require teachers that are fluent in ASL or SEE or any form of sign language, because the child does not require it in class. They may not need an oral interpreter, either. They may not need any assistance. What they may need are intensive speech and auditory services, audiological services, a good audiological classroom environment, and a teacher trained in educating the deaf via oral means.

This by no means implies that I am against sign language. We started signing with Patrick as soon as he was diagnosed, and we have already started signing with our seven week old baby.

Making blanket statements about what is best for the education of deaf children is one of my hot buttons.

Chris

<< Chris deHahn.....CdH.....System, Network, CAE Administrator >>
<< Sun Microsystems, Inc....dehahn@tiac.net...'91 Buell RS1200 >>

Document 4 of 17

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Date: Sat, 29 Jun 1996 12:01:20 -0400

Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: Noelle Reimers

Subject: Re: mainstreaming

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

I'd like to offer my insight re the above statement based on my experiences this past school year. During the year I functioned for part of my teacher day as a combination co-teacher (I am a teacher of the deaf) and educational interpreter for two 6th grade students who were mainstreamed/included/whatever-you-wish-to-call-it. ;-) The other part of the day we were self-contained for two subject areas. I wrestled with several obstacles to learning in mainstream settings for Deaf students over the course of the school year.

Deaf students often have considerable concept deficits (they have trouble accessing the "unwritten curriculum" of school and home life) which means they often can't start a lesson at the same point as regular ed. The teacher needs to back up until she finds content understanding and then move forward to the lesson starting point. Bumping up against concept or language deficits often occurs mid-lesson as well and the lesson needs to stop until understanding is gained again. Moving forward without understanding is a waste of everyone's time, yet it often happens. Sometimes it happens simply because in the reg ed setting you don't have the time or freedom to elicit prior knowledge to determine if there are concept/language deficits for everything covered. Or it happens because the comment was really off topic and not essential to continuing with the lesson, yet it is an opportunity lost for the deaf student to access that "unwritten curriculum." (Following through on an interpreter's ethical responsiblity to interpret everything is simply not always practically possible...if by interpret you mean transmit understanding.) I equate it to me sitting in a PhD level quantum physics class that is being conducted in Spanish. Just because someone interprets it into English for me doesn't mean I understand it. One might argue then that the reg ed lesson starting point is at the wrong place and this is an inappropriate lesson: BINGO. However, there are 30 hearing students who, when a reference is made to "the civil rights movement for African Americans," don't need a side lesson on what the term "civil rights" means, who the term African Americans refers to, and a mini-lesson in American History about slavery to understand that life wasn't always equal under the law in the US. In a mainstreamed setting, these concept/language deficit problems occur frequently for the student who is Deaf.

Another problem I encountered is that Teachers of the Deaf need to have certain materials at their fingertips when problems noted above occur...picture files and picture dictionaries, maps, manipulatives to teach abstract concepts in a hands on/concrete way, a snippet of a video that may make clear a difficult-to explain-idea, CD-ROM resources that can pull up video/pictures/diagrams of most anything that needs clarification, etc., etc. I was really a guest in someone else's reg ed classroom and changed classrooms with the students as they changed subjects. I was able to keep resources in our self-contained room, but carrying them with me through the mainstreamed part of the day was not possible. I found myself making lists of things to go over again once we were back in our room. Even if I had these things available to me in the reg ed class, it would be difficult to access them during the general lesson. Not to mention that the lesson would have continued for the rest of the class while we were doing other things.

One other problem was simply the instructional methods of the reg ed classroom...not taking advantage of when things can be shown best by diagram or picture, talking while the students eyes need to be elsewhere (for example explaining some point while using a map), use of written materials that are above the deaf students reading/language level, discussion bouncing in a lively (yet difficult to interpret and join in) manner, etc. etc. Yes, many of these things can theoretically be addressed and modified/adapted by the Teacher for the Deaf; I did my very best. But practically speaking it did not become an instructional setting that served the deaf students very well.

I found an excellent resource which discusses these and other issues in mainstreaming Deaf children...._Implications and Complications for Deaf Students of the Full Inclusion Movement_. It is Gallaudet Research Institute Occasional Paper 94-2. If you are interested in these issues and haven't read it, it is worth getting a copy.

Noelle Reimers
nreimers@eagle1.eaglenet.com

Document 5 of 17

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Date: Sat, 29 Jun 1996 21:05:38 -0600

Reply-To: ccumming@jeffco.k12.co.us

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: Candace Cummings

Subject: Re: mainstreaming

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

Noelle,

I coudn't agree with you more! Colorado recently passed A Deaf Child's Bill of Rights which mandates our school districts to KEEP existing programs, options for parents!! Many of our "hearing" administrators thought inclusion was appropriate for our Deaf students!They could not understand why ALL our students couldn't be placed in a "hearing" classroom with an interpreter. One administrator suggested that an aide could "take a couple of sign classes"!!! We fought long and hard to get this bill passed:)) Now our parents are guaranteed a Deaf program!!!

Candie Cummings
ccumming@jeffco.k12.co.us

Document 6 of 17

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Date: Mon, 1 Jul 1996 23:52:06 EDT

Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: Cathy Brandt

Subject: Re: mainstreaming???help!!!!

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

In-Reply-To: Message of Sat, 29 Jun 1996 16:07:15 -0400 from

On Sat, 29 Jun 1996 16:07:15 -0400 Christofer deHahn said:

>Making blanket statements about what is best for the education of deaf children is one of my hot buttons.

Not only is this a "hot button" for Chris it is a major source of CONCERN for me. I think it is IMPERATIVE that we in education - parents, teachers, administrators etc, who deal with the INDIVIDUALIZED Education Plan MUST remember that not ALL deaf kids are alike and fit ONE mold. In my opinion, this is a very critical factor as we seek to enable and empower children to reach their full potential.

Not ALL kids will be oral. Not ALL kids will use ASL. Not ALL kids should go to mainstream schools. Not ALL kids should go to a residential school. The list goes on and on. One of the things that scares me the MOST which is happening in our field currently is the move to legally mandate requirements of teachers and schools which IGNORE the individual needs of children.

We do not want our children who are deaf to become smurfs - all have blue faces, all wear the white outfit, all do this - all do that. We refuse to let that happen to us as adults and we should fight against it at every turn in the area of educating children who are deaf and hard of hearing.

I'd love to see the people on this list become a core or a even a catalyst in the changing of minds when it comes to the One Key approach in deaf education. I think we all need to keep open minds to various philosophies and methods valuing each for its merit. It doesn't have to be right and wrong. It is about individual and family choice.

Am currently in the midst of a similar idea on Deaf-l relative to implanting children with cochlear implants.

People are different. Children are different. We each have different needs and wants. We need to have an education system that provides for and supports that.

Cathy - who saw so many different deaf kids and adults last week and truly took note of those and enjoyed them

One night we were eating at a restaurant at the resort. There were several deaf people there. Many hearing aids. Some cochlear implants. Some folks were signing and others were talking and lipreading. Jena looked around her and said, "UNBELIEVALBE, *Everybody* is deaf in here!" (She could have signed it, too. But, this time she just talked.)

I just smiled. And she just beamed. And my heart just was filled with joy and pride.

Document 7 of 17

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Date: Tue, 2 Jul 1996 23:51:00 BST-1

Reply-To: mthomasa@cix.compulink.co.uk

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: Mark Thomas

Subject: Re: mainstreaming : end of year thoughts

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

In-Reply-To: <9606291601.AA29912@eagle1.eaglenet.com>

Like Noelle, I have spent this year, my first year in deaf ed, alongside a deaf student (aged 10) in a regular classroom. Everything she said echoed my own experiences - the problems of lessons that start from a point without concepts and experience, the difficulties of explanation when you can't always have appropriate materials at hand and so on. She put it so well. I have struggled with all these things in spite of working alongside a class teacher who did her best to make the lessons accessible and gave me free rein to organise my schedule as I thought best for the half days that I was in her class.

I have learnt such a lot this year. I was a regular ed teacher before so I started out reading all the materials I could on educating the deaf, hoping to find "the answer". My supervisor kept telling me there wasn't any magic advice and after a year, I finally believe her! The thoughts and opinions expressed on EDUDEAF have been a big help and support for me though, especially as there are no other teachers of the deaf locally.

Next year promises more challenges - I shall be learning sign as will the deaf student (oral), his class and a different class teacher.

Sue Thomas
Scotland

Document 8 of 17

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Date: Tue, 2 Jul 1996 06:31:49 -0400

Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: "William L. Center"

Subject: Re: mainstreaming???help!!!!

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

Hi all,

I'm new here and my name is Linda. I teach preschool Deaf/deaf/HoH. Our school district offers programs for the oral approach and TC. It works great. We have an active parents group made up of parents from both programs. No problem. In meetings, issues are geared toward how to cope..., where to find... etc. But never "which is best" .

During testing and staffing of new students both programs are involved. Pros and cons of both programs are evaluated based on the child's needs. Decisions are made and sometimes later reversed (child switches programs).

Are we that different from other districts?

Linda
Atlanta

Document 9 of 17

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Date: Tue, 2 Jul 1996 11:09:31 -0400

Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: Linda Semesky

Subject: Re: mainstreaming???help!!!!

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

Hi Linda,

Our County also has oral and tc programs which seems excellent. It's the mainstreaming options that seem to get sticky. What do you do there to mainstream the hoh children? Here, they say, oh well these kids hear, so give them some extra speech, maybe an ALD, stick them in a classroom and give the teacher a 1 hour briefing, then say goodbye unless they fail a grade...then maybe get them minimial special ed support....not even necessarily from the itinerant teacher. If minimal support doesn't work, then send them to the self-contained program. If the child needs acoustic modification to succeed in a regular ed program, then that child must go to the self-contained oral program. Doesn't make much sense to me!

We debated long and hard about whether to put Alex in the primary oral program locally. There are six children in the class, many of whom are older than Alex. There is a teacher and an aide and both a sound field and fm unit for each child....also acoustic modification to the room. However, everyone agreed that Alex needed language modeling from regular ed kids and that his language development could be hurt by such a placement. Also, the children were mostly older than he is and he would not be in an area near his home school so afterschool friendships would not form. He has been at his current school going on 3-1/2 years next fall and knows all of the teachers and they know his issues and have watched him grow as an almost three year old to an almost six year old. It is a magnet school for math science and communication which people fight to get their kids into. And, the school administration is extremely supportive of Alex's needs. Alex is the only oral hoh kindergartner in all of Baltimore County, which means that he has no peer group in the hoh community. So, if he is to relate to other children his age, it must be in the hearing first grade population. We figure that if Alex really starts to fail despite major support, that we can always place him in the oral hoh program after the fact and he will be readily accepted because all of the children have ALDs and speech/hearing issues. Acceptance would be a lot harder if he started in the hoh program and then tried to enter a regular first grade program. His ALD and other issues are much more noticeable when he comes in as a single "new kid" in the middle of the year instead of coming in as part of a group of new kids all of which have one thing in common....they are new to the class. Also, Alex has already formed many relationships in the school. He is so outgoing that many children know him and greet him in the hallway. He also has his friends from kindergarten. So, we are keeping our fingers crossed, fighting for appropriate supports and then letting him loose to sink or swim on his own, though we'll be there to keep him from drowning under the big waves!

Document 10 of 17

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Date: Tue, 2 Jul 1996 06:31:49 -0400

Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: "William L. Center"

Subject: Re: mainstreaming???help!!!!

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

Hi all,

I'm new here and my name is Linda. I teach preschool Deaf/deaf/HoH. Our school district offers programs for the oral approach and TC. It works great. We have an active parents group made up of parents from both programs. No problem. In meetings, issues are geared toward how to cope..., where to find... etc. But never "which is best" .

During testing and staffing of new students both programs are involved. Pros and cons of both programs are evaluated based on the child's needs. Decisions are made and sometimes later reversed (child switches programs).

Are we that different from other districts?

Linda
Atlanta

Document 11 of 17

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Date: Tue, 2 Jul 1996 13:32:51 EDT

Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: Cathy Brandt

Subject: Re: mainstreaming???help!!!!

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

In-Reply-To: Message of Tue, 2 Jul 1996 06:31:49 -0400 from

Our district offers the same thing. However, this is NOT happening all over the country. Especially districts with small populations seek to find one method to use and make all children fit that mold.

There are other folks who strongly promote ONE way as THE best way. Some of these lean to the oral side, others to an ASL side and yet others to other specific modes of communication.

Cathy

Document 12 of 17

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Date: Wed, 3 Jul 1996 08:44:29 CST

Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: Malinda Eccarius

Subject: mainstreaming

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

Hi again,

After moving and traveling for almost two weeks, I got back to find a very interesting strand starting on mainstreaming. This is a subject I can't just lurk around--I have to get at least two cents in. First, hats off to everyone plugging for a variety of options. Nothing works for everyone, and that is not just for deaf and hoh children. Some of the rural Nebraska and Iowa towns in this area, however, when faced with the only deaf child for miles in any direction, have tried various ways to provide for that child locally. Sometimes it works, and sometimes it doesn t, but as a consultant to a few of these districts (one of my many educational services hats at Boys Town Research Hospital) I have seen some things that might be worth passing on:

1. A couple districts have children (one hoh, one with a cochlear implant), who are on the edge as far as academic skills. These children have friends in the area, play on sports teams, get passing grades, and continue to make progress. The services for them have included: interpreter/tutor, staff inservice, speech/language services, AND---a once a quarter consultant from outside who comes in, watches, talks to people, and makes suggestions for finetuning, answers questions that have come up, and sends a report with everything that has been discussed back to the school. This is low key, but based totally on what is happening with that child, in that school, at that time. The important qualification of the consultant is EXPERIENCE in that setting, and excellent assessment information going in doesn't hurt either. I am not always the consultant, but last year I found that having done the assessment and the consulting gave me quite an advantage. Two hours every nine weeks was inexpensive for the school district, and efficient for the family and teachers. It wouldn't work in every situation, but it worked here.

2. Flexibility within a mainstreaming situation seems to be as important as flexibility in providing the original options. One child needs sign receptively, but expressive sign slows down her increasingly intelligible speech and reduces the complexity of her responses, so no one insists that she sign back UNLESS she hasn't been understood, and other clarification strategies are also accepted. Another child needs to use the interpreter when she doesn't catch what the teacher said, so sometimes she watches one, sometimes the other. She does it efficiently, and the interpreter monitors her comprehension, but doesn't get insulted if not watched every minute. At the beginning of a unit, the child watches the interpreter a lot more than at the end, when the vocabulary has become familiar, and the concepts are related in her mind.

3. One on one tutoring outside of school (and in the summer) has been most effective when the following factors were in place:

  • School content was used
  • The focus of the tutoring was on the skills needed to address the content (such as answering certain kinds of questions at the end of textbook chapters, organizing and writing reports, retelling literature stories, justifying answers to inference questions, etc. etc. etc),
  • The parent watched tutoring and used similar strategies to address homework, and
  • Reports on what was addressed went home and to school (not long reports, just a list of content used, topics discussed, and skills addressed).

    4. In team teaching situations in Iowa City and in Austin, I would teach a small group of normally hearing children from the regular class with my students for math, or reading, or other subjects, within the larger class context. This allowed small group attention for the hearing children, a reasonable competitive challenge for my deaf/hoh students, and a reality check for me about what grade level skill and language requirements might be.

    5. In many situations, a few minutes a day or several times a week, time was devoted to a subject where deaf students had an advantage: Sign choir, sign class, visual games, deaf culture videos or guests. These were educational for both groups, provided multicultural exposure, and allowed the deaf/hard of hearing students to feel that their issues were also important to the class as a whole.

    6. For some students, mainstreaming has worked against progress, with academic assessment scores dropping in the mainstreamed subjects, and rising in the self contained subjects. Other children have "taken off" when placed in the mainstream environment, finding it more challenging, but not out of reach. Sometimes, I have had to be satisfied with continued progress, or prioritized curriculum goals and skills, rather than complete acquisition of everything the hearing children were learning, and sometimes the deaf students has been one of the top achievers in the class. Viewing mainstreaming as several continuums, rather than either or choices:

  • Total mainstreaming through specials only mainstreaming
  • Superlative achievement through continuing progress
  • Minimal support through maximum support with the right combination of factors for that child viewed as the ultimate goal (rather than gradual movement towards a single RIGHT goal) in order to be "successful" seems the most sane approach.

    If we have only one definition of success, we are setting ourselves and our children up for failure.

    Sorry this turned into a "quarter" instead of "two cents"

    Malinda

    Document 13 of 17

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    Date: Mon, 8 Jul 1996 17:58:58 EDT

    Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

    Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

    From: "LUCKER, JAY"

    Subject: Re: mainstreaming???help!!!!

    To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

    In-Reply-To: In reply to your message of Thu, 27 Jun 1996 10:17:19 EDT

    Claudine,

    I'm sorry for not being able to respond earlier, but I have been very busy these past two and a half weeks with the birth of our new son, Joshua.

    Well, I can not add support against mainstreaming, because I do not believe mainstreaming is not successful. I believe that mainstreaming is the best method for teaching all children with handicaps or disabilities. However, in order to successfully mainstream, the schools must do a lot of modifications and provide a great deal of assistance. I believe that because of the costs and the coordination necessary to mainstream, this is why mainstreaming is unsuccessful.

    So, what am I really saying ? In order to mainstream a child who is deaf, the teacher needs to have all of the time necessary to provide for this child. If the teacher can not have the extra time (which is probably unlikely), then a special teacher who is in the classroom all of the time needs to be available to provide the special time needed for the child who is deaf.

    Now, in order to communicate effectively and appropriately with a child who is deaf in the mainstream, ASL/sign language and oral communication need to be employed. As such, one might consider a TC program, but, TC does not employ ASL. (I, for one, am not convinced that we are doing a service to our children who are deaf by teaching both ASL and English. My research with bilingual oral children finds that language is not well developed in most of these children if a bilingual approach is taken from the start because they probably do not have a foundation of any language.) SO, TC may be best if the English language is to be used in both oral and manual modes. But, what about the ability (out of school in social situations) for the child to communicate effectively with others who are deaf ? We will then have to teach oral English, written English, signed English and ASL. Are we equipped to provide all of these services ?

    Now, should only the child who is deaf learn signed languages ? No ! Because then we would not be mainstreaming. SO, the entire class and (appropriately) the entire school should learn sign language. WIll the school do it ? WIll the entire class be willing to sign ? WIll the teachers do it ? WIll the parents allow it ?

    Well, just a few of the problems in mainstreaming if you really want a true inclusion approach. Can it be done ? Sure! Just needs a lot of work. WIll it be done ? Who's gonna pay for it ? Will my child with normal hearing be deprived of any services in order to provide the funding to successfully mainstream other children who are deaf ? But, should we isolate those who are deaf because they hear differently and communcate differently ?

    Research both formal and informal (i.e., anecdotes) have demonstrated that adults and adolescents who are deaf who have both the ability to sign and the ability to use aural/oral communication get further in their schooling and in the job and social environment. SO, in order to provide the best schooling, best social skills, the best employment opportunities, we need a true inclusion/mainstreaming program.

    Is there any school system which has the monies to do so ?

    Oh, BTW, what about the children who are blind, learning disabled, language impaired, hard of hearing, physically impaired, etc. DO we have the funds to mainstream them as well ?

    Dr.J!

    Document 14 of 17

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    Date: Mon, 15 Jul 1996 14:16:20 CST

    Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

    Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

    From: Malinda Eccarius

    Subject: mainstreaming???

    To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

    Linda, and other people with preschool and kindergarten students:

    What a wonderful mix of resources and students you have available for the fall!!! Have you worked with the Hi-Scope program at all? Their classroom and schedule organization has had marvelous results with our preschoolers here at Boys Town, partly because everything is concept based, and the language comes from the concepts and concept based activities. Our themes we draw from literature (Where the Wild Things Are, for example). You should have seen our "wild rumpus"!!!

    In addition to the general Hi-Scope program, our teachers have added some modifications which they said they would be glad to share, related to speech, auditory (we have CI students who are TC), and running language samples. Here are the resources:

    High/Scope (correct spelling, I blew it up there in the message)Press
    600 North River Street, Ypsilanti, MI 48198-2898
    (orders: 1-800-40PRESS, FAX (800) 442-4FAX)

    For Deaf/HOH modifications:
    e-mail address: HAGEMOSER@BOYSTOWN.ORG OR PATTER@BOYSTOWN.ORG
    Boys Town National Research Hospital
    555 N. 30th Street
    Omaha, NE 68131

    Being a person who loves cognitive emphasis language instruction, I find every opportunity to sneak in and substitute in the preschool, just for fun!

    Malinda Eccarius

    Document 15 of 17

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    Date: Mon, 15 Jul 1996 11:52:18 -0400

    Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

    Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

    From: "William L.Center"

    Subject: Re: mainstreaming???help!!!!

    To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

    Looking for advice and/or suggestions for:

    My class is oral PK/K. I ended the year with 10 students and my class is being divided for next year. At my suggestion, both classes will work from the same room sharing the students rather than dividing them. Here is my situation:

    10 students, 2 teachers, 2 parapros, 2 SLP's with service varying

    5 students will be in kindergarten mainstreaming a part of the day (3 students have mild/moderate losses, 1 has a severe/profound loss, and 1 has a CI).

    5 students are preschool age several CIs others have HAs and ATs. One student has CMV the rest have only hearing problems "identified to date".

    I have "Speech Viewer 2", plus a small room off my room for individual therapy. The two parapros are very capable and listen to directions; have been teachers in the past. In other words they can be trusted to carry out directions and expand on them if nec.

    We also have 5th grade pals who come in the morning (7:45 - 8:10) and again in the afternoon (2:00 - 2:20) to play and talk with the children and to help them get ready for the day to start or end. Everyone has a special friend. These "pals" are also available during assemblies, etc.

    We have art, music, PE and media center time.

    With all this available does anyone have any suggestions on how to organize the day which is from 7:45 - 2:20 (including a nap for the 3 and 4 year olds). I want to take advantage of every minute possible.

    Thank you in advance,

    Linda Center
    lgcen@mindspring.com

    Linda
    Atlanta

    Document 16 of 17

    Information Home Page Deaf Education Home Page Document: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

    Date: Mon, 15 Jul 1996 16:20:55 -0400

    Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

    Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

    From: Susan Manross

    Subject: Re: mainstreaming???help!!!!

    To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

    In-Reply-To: <1.5.4.32.19960715155218.0066beb4@pop.mindspring.com>

    This is in response to Linda Center's request for help in structuring her day with 10 kids, 2 teachers, 2 paras, + 2 sp lang/path types! + 1 partridge in a pear tree! Sorry, I couldn't resist. I am feeling extra frisky today, must finally be feeling rested from 95-96 yr!

    Gosh, I really *wish* I had this problem. Oh gosh, can I come work where you do? I know, I know, not everything can be perfect where you are at! ;-)

    Ok, ok, I will try and be serious. I am having flash-aheads to my upcoming yr! The class from h---! 8 boys + 1 teacher, 0 paras, sp teacher who is inconsistent + I definitely will get "pals" + drugs + something hard to drink in bottom file cabinet drawer! :-)

    Managing all the adults will be your biggest problem. My personal bias is to have kids helping other kids BUT...........that's me.

    I guess I just have more ?s for you to understand where everyone is at?

    Are paras used as interpreters?

    Guess I would need to know what mainstreamed kids are going out for and what subjects(?) are left for you to address? In my dreams, I dream of a speech and language therapist who would pull kids to back of room for work on individual speech but who could also come forward in group time to do data collection as far as turn-taking, length and content of child's response, how child answers ?s, etc.

    This is just a start, I need more info to help. Do you need another teacher?

    Sue Manross
    Cleveland, Ohio, USA

    Document 17 of 17

    Information Home Page Deaf Education Home Page Document: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

    Date: Mon, 15 Jul 1996 17:53:01 -0400

    Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

    Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

    From: "William L.Center"

    Subject: Re: mainstreaming???help!!!!

    To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

    Loved the "song" made my first laugh of the day. Is it time for Christmas? I haven't even started shopping yet.

    Teaching in the class:

    We spend the whole day in language group games/playtime and the children are pulled out individually for speech, specific language skills, auditory training using the DASL II, work on Speech Viewer 2 (will do more here when I figure more out.)and speech reading depending on IEPs.

    Perfect no:

    Yes I do have problems, I have to FIGHT to get speech (from SLPs) 5 days a week for my students. Sometimes I do not win. Heck most times I don't win but it's getting better. Why would a child with a profound loss not need speech? CIs don't need daily speech? Or am I wanting everything perfect. What would I complain about then?

    >Managing all the adults will be your biggest problem. This will be okay I think. The 2 parapros have been with me for a while and are very familiar with my wants and what I mean/not say. They are both very capable of playing language games, working on cognition, pre-reading and pre-math skills. They have both been trained to trouble shoot equipment and know when to ask for help. The children/parents love them. They are the pussy cats, I'm the tiger. The "new" teacher I met last year and we both believe that we can get along. This will be her first class and she is looking forward to working with me. Poor Kid. I am looking forward to fresh ideas. I would rather not stay up until 1 or 2 AM thinking of the 98th way to present an idea.

    5th grade Pals: help the children put up their backpacks, listen to stories about what happened. Give hugs and kisses. They don't teach or help in that way. They are like a big brother or sister who is just there for each child especially. They are chosen Very Carefully!! In fact that is the big dream in our school. To be a 5th grade Pal.

    >Are paras used as interpreters?

    When the students are mainstreamed (where possible) and if they need oral interpreters then yes they are. Each student's needs dictate where the parapros are placed at different times of the day.

    >Guess I would need to know what mainstreamed kids are going out for and what subjects(?) are left for you to address?

    Three students will need very little help they have a mild/moderate loss. We will be here mostly to back them up and to do individual language, auditory training etc. to fill up the gaps. They use their residual very well.

    The other two students to mainstream, have severe to profound losses (1 CI and 1 HA/AT). They will be out for art, music, PE, media center, "centers" math and science, lunch and playtime. Maybe. I will have them for 2 or 3 hours daily (adjustable) for all language, auditory training, speech reading and to reinforce concepts from the mainstream. A parapro or teacher will be with them except for art, music, PE, media, lunch and play. The student with the CI is difficult to work with because she won't stop telling me about what happen everywhere. She is one of those showcase kids. I get goose bumps when I think of her. Amazing. Actually all of the students have done very well. I do have some questions about specific problems and how /what to do. Will ask later.

    Right now we collect language samples weekly and special "things" always. The parapros collect other data when I am working in the group. We have requested our own SLP who will only be for the deaf/hoh students. You never know. I ask for everything and demand very little and get the most. So far it works.

    I really want to utilize all the resources that I have to the max. How to organize my/our day. Would it be better if we each had "our students"? or should we each specialize? (hopefully our strong/weak areas will blend to create utopia. Think so?)

    I'll stop now before I need a publisher. Sorry :)

    Ta,
    Linda C
    Atlanta

    Uploaded by: Melissa Close/Kent State University/Deaf Education Major