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Motivation

Key words: Information/Deafness Related Issues, Deaf Education

Submitted by: Jody Fetter

Topic: Techniques and ideas to motivate students extrinsically as well as intrinsically.

Information:

Motivation is a prime factor for success in learning. If a student is not motivated to learn, chances are the student will only be minimally, if at all, successful in mastering a skill. "Children who are motivated toward acquiring new information or skills are working toward learning goals and will seek challenge, persist in spite of obstacles, and exert substantial effort toward mastery"(Lewis, 1992). By motivating students the teacher would help the children set goals, and reach those goals by overcoming challenges.

There have been numerous researches done on motivation. In those studies numerous researchers have theorized that motivation is affected substantially by self-efficacy, or students' beliefs regarding their ability to meet task demands (Fulk & Grymes, 1994). For example, students who believe they have little control over academic outcomes (grades) exhibit little enthusiasm for the learning process (Fulk & Grymes, 1994). For students who feel this way there are many intrinsic and extrinsic techniques to boost their self-esteem and help them to become excited about the learning process.

There are many ways in which to motivate students. The best way to motivate students is to involve them in their own learning. Motivation is enhanced by students' active involvement and ownership of the learning process (Fulk & Grymes, 1994). Students should be allowed to make choices in issues ranging from simple to more complex. There are many ways in which to achieve this. Some of the ideas include: assignment menu, flexible sequencing, self scoring, and self correction, varying assignment length, goal setting, and use of creativity. A brief description of these will be in the context below.

A menu of assignments is one method of empowering students. This is when the teacher gives the students the assignments, the due dates, and the value of each assignment. The students are then able to choose which assignments they would like to do first and maybe even ones they would like to leave out, if this an option. This may even go right along with the flexible sequencing.

Self-scoring and self-correction is yet another way of letting the students have some control over their learning process. You would let the students do their work and then self-score and correct. This lets the students see what is wrong with their answers and correct them for themselves. It takes the "looking bad" off of the teacher and puts control into the student's hands.

Creativity is an excellent way to let the students make their work personal. It takes the boring worksheets and book reports away and lets the students express their knowledge in a way that works best for them.

Other techniques to increase motivation may come from the teachers creativity. Since we all know there is a need for some teacher control and of course the dreaded worksheet, why not make them interesting and fun for the students? In the article "For the Classroom" the author gave many good ideas of making these activities fun. These included: open worksheets, pictures, and a lottery.

Here is how the author explained his lottery system: Sometimes I would have students take spelling test on small slips of paper instead of the traditional 8 1/2" x 11" sheet. After each item was administered I would collect them and put them in a lottery drawing box for later use. Periodically during the day, I would have a lottery drawing. If the name, date, and information on the ticket was correct, the entrant won a prize or elected to reenter the super lottery held at the end of the week (Algozzine, 1994). This lottery could also be used for classroom behavior.

Enhancing students' achievement motivation is one of the most challenging tasks confronting educators (Okolo, Bahr, & Gardner, 1995). It is a task that all teachers are asked to do. As educators we need to be aware of the techniques and ideas that will motivate and enhance our students learning process. Anything we can do can make a big change in our students lives. Once the students have learned and used things that motivate them they will have developed the abilities and dispositions necessary to continue learning once they leave the classroom (Okolo, Bahr, & Gardner, 1995).

Questions:

What are some ways to get the parents involved in motivation?

What are some ideas of motivating students intrinsically besides grades and parents expectations?

Why are students so unmotivated in this day and age?

What drammatic changes have occurred in schools to contribute to the lack of motivation among students?

Insights:

The articles and research I did showed many useful ideas and techniques to motivate students. I would wonder though how often they really work to motivate the more "troublesome" students. Since there is such a high degree of drop outs in this day and age these ideas and techniques need to be available to teachers. Teachers should keep up on current information and ideas to try to help all studnets out.

Work Cited

Algozzine, Bob. (1194). For the classroom. Intervention In School and Clinic, 29(5), 310-311.

Fulk, B., & Grymes, D. (1994). Strategies to improve student motivation. Intervention In School and Clinic, 30(1), 28-33.

Lewis, Arleen C. (1992). Student motivation and learning: The role of the school counselor. The School Counselor, 39(1), 333-336.

Okolo, C., Bahr, C., & Gardner, J. (1995). Increasing achievement motivation of elementary school students with mild disabilities. Intervention In School and Clinic, 30(5), 279-286.

Motivational Technique Menu

Student Involvement
1. Provide an assignment menu.
2. Allow flexible sequencing and due dates.
3. Incorporate self-scoring and self-correction.
4. Vary assignment length.
5. Set goals with the students.

Create and Maintain Interest
1. Provide each student with an optimal challenge.
2. Introduce lessons enthusiastically.
3. Vary presentation style.
4. Give clear directions.
5. Set clear expectations.
6. Explain relevance of activity.

Affective Variables
1. Create a positive environment.
2. Provide performance feedback.
3. Recognize achievements.

Book Report Options

1. Complete the study guide as you read each chapter.

2. Share your book with the class. This will be oral and should include a visual.

3. Make up activities to be completed by your classmates.

4. Make a poster about the book to "sell" it to readers.

5. Write a newspaper report about part or all of the book.

6. Make a book report mobile.

7. Interview the author.

8. Read the book with a friend. Help each other with the understanding of the book.

9. Make a book jacket for the book. Include a section about the author and a summary of the book. Illustrate the cover to make others want to read the book.

10. Pick one incident in the book and rewrite it with a different ending. Include all the same characters.

Uploaded by: Melissa Close/ Kent State Unversity/ Deaf Education Major