CEC-CED JOINT KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL STATEMENTS FOR ALL BEGINNING TEACHERS OF STUDENTS WHO ARE DEAF OR HARD OF HEARING

Key Words:Information/Documents

PREAMBLE

The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) and the Council on Education of the Deaf (CED), working together, developed the CEC-CED Joint Knowledge and Skills Document presented below. This document is a set of 66 statements specific to the education of students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) and is an expansion of the 107 CEC Common Core Knowledge and Skills statements. Both sets of statements are used together and form standards for judging whether individuals have the necessary knowledge and skills to begin teaching (licensure/certification) or whether professional teacher preparation programs have met national standards (accreditation).

The Knowledge and Skills document assumes commitment by Universities and Colleges to a full continuum of options both for students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing and for teacher preparation programs regarding choice of philosophy under which each program operates. Inherent in the overall process are three basic assumptions:

1) Each teacher preparation program provides a clear philosophy and mission statement which describes its approach to education of learners who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing, including clarification of communication and teaching philosophy(ies) and practice(s).

2) Each program designs foundation courses and experiences consistent with its philosophy(ies) and practice(s) which address diverse needs, both generic and specific, of learners who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing,and

3) Each program is evaluated by professionals with backgrounds similar to that stated in the philosophy/mission statement.

For the purposes of this document the following definitions of terminology have been identified:

1) The term "communication" includes all avenues, verbal and nonverbal, through which we represent information. Communication includes but is not limited to English in all forms, whether signed, spoken, or written, American Sign Language (ASL), other formal languages, and nonverbal communication acts.

2) The term "language" means any and all formal languages, spoken, signed or otherwise represented.

3) The terms "deaf" and "hard of hearing" are considered within a cultural, educational, audiological, and/or medical context consistent with each program's philosophy/mission statement.

I. PHILOSOPHICAL, HISTORICAL, and LEGAL FOUNDATIONS of SPECIAL EDUCATION

KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS BEYOND COMMON CORE

A. Knowledge

1. Current educational definitions of students with hearing loss, including identification criteria, labeling issues, and current incidence and prevalence figures.

2. Models, theories, and philosophies(e.g., bilingual- bicultural, total communication,oral/aural) that provide the basis for educational practice(s) for students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing, as consistent with program philosophy.

3. Variations in beliefs, traditions, and values across cultures and within society, and the effect of the relationships among children who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing, their families, and schooling.

4. Issues in definition and identification procedures for individuals who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing (e.g., cultural vs medical perspective).

5. "Rights and responsibilities" (e.g., Deaf Children's Bill of Rights) of parents, students, teachers, and schools as they relate to students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

6. The impact of various educational placement options (from the perspective of the needs of any given child who is Deaf/Hard of Hearing and consistent with program philosophy) with regard to cultural identity, linguistic, academic, and social-emotional development.

B. Skills

7. Apply understanding of theory, philosophy and models of practice to the education of students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

8. Articulate pros and cons of current issues and trends in special education and the field of education of children who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

9. Identify the major contributors to the growth and improvement of past-to-present knowledge and practice in the field of education of children who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

II. CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNERS

KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS BEYOND COMMON CORE

A. Knowledge

10.Communication features (visual, spatial, tactile, and/or auditory) salient to the learner who is Deaf/Hard of Hearing which are necessary to enhance cognitive, emotional and social development.

11.Research in cognition related to children who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

12. Cultural dimensions which being Deaf or Hard of Hearing may add to the life of a child.

13.Various etiologies that can result in additional sensory, motor, and/or learning differences in students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

14. Effects of families and/or primary caregivers on the overall development of the child who is Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

15. Effect that onset of hearing loss, age of identification, and provision of services have on the development of the child who is Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

16. Impact of early comprehensible communication has on the development of the child who is Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

17. Recognition that being deaf or hard of hearing alone does not necessarily preclude normal academic development, cognitive development, or communication ability.

18. The differences in quality and quantity of incidental language/learning experiences which Deaf/Hard of Hearing children may experience.

19.Effects of sensory input on development of language and cognition of children who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

B. Skills

(none in addition to core)

III. ASSESSMENT, DIAGNOSIS, and EVALUATION

KN OWLEDGE AND SKILLS BEYOND COMMON CORE

A. Knowledge

20.Specialized terminology used in the assessments of children who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

21. Components of an adequate evaluation for eligibility placement and program planning ( e.g., interpreters, special tests) decisions for students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

22.Legal provisions, regulations and guidelines regarding unbiased diagnostic assessment, and use of instructional assessment measures with students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

23.Special policies regarding referral and placement procedures (e.g., Federal Policy Guidance, Oct.30, 1992) for students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

B. Skills

24.Administer appropriate assessment tools utilizing the natural/native/preferred language of the student who is Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

25.Gather and analyze communication samples from students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing, including non-verbal as well as linguistic acts.

26. Use exceptionality-specific assessment instruments (e.g., SAT-HI, TERA-DHH, FSST) appropriate for students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

IV. INSTRUCTIONAL CONTENT and PRACTICE

KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS BEYOND COMMON CORE

A. Knowledge

27.Sources of specialized materials for students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

28. Components of the non-linguistic and linguistic communication which students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing use.

29. The procedures and technologies required to educate students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing under one or more of the existing modes or philosophies (consistent with program philosophy).

30. Information related to ASL and existing communication modes used by students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

31. Current theories of how languages (e.g., ASL and English) develop in children who are hearing and who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

32.Subject matter and practices used in general education across content areas.

33. Ways to facilitate cognitive and communicative development in students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing (e.g., visual saliency) consistent with program philosophy.

34. Techniques of stimulation and utilization of residual hearing in students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing consistent with program philosophy.

35. Research supported instructional strategies and practice for teaching students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

B. Skills

36.Demonstrate proficiency in the language(s) the beginning teacher will use to instruct students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

37. Demonstrate characteristics of various existing communication modes used with students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

38.Select, design, produce, and utilize media, materials, and resources required to educate students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing under one or more of the existing modes or philosophies (e.g., bilingual-bicultural, total communication, aural/oral).

39.Infuse speech skills into academic areas as consistent with mode or philosophy espoused and ability of student who is Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

40. Modify instructional process and classroom environment to meet the physical, cognitive, cultural, and communication needs of the child who is Deaf/Hard of Hearing (e.g., teachers's style, acoustic environment, availability of support services, availability of appropriate technologies).

41. Facilitate independent communication behavior in children who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

42. Apply first and second language teaching strategies (e.g., English through ASL or ESL) appropriate to the needs of the individual student who is Deaf/Hard of Hearing and consistent with program philosophy.

43. Demonstrate ability to modify incidental language experiences to fit the visual and other sensory needs of children who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

44.Provide appropriate activities for students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing to promote literacy in English and/or ASL.

V. PLANNING and MANAGING the TEACHING and LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS BEYOND COMMON CORE

A. Knowledge

45. Deaf cultural factors that may influence classroom management of students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

46.Model programs, including career/vocational and transition, that have been effective for students with hearing losses.

B. Skills

47. Manage assistive/augmentative devices appropriate for students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing in learning environments.

48. Select, adapt, and implement classroom management strategies for students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing that reflect understanding of each child's cultural needs, including primarily visual Deaf culture where appropriate.

49.Design a classroom environment that maximizes opportunities for visually oriented and/or auditory learning in students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

50. Plan and implement instruction for students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing and who have multiple disabilities and special needs.

VI. MANAGING STUDENT BEHAVIOR and SOCIAL INTERACTION SKILLS

KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS BEYOND COMMON CORE

A. Knowledge

51.Processes for establishing ongoing interactions of students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing with peers and role models who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

52. Opportunities for interaction communities of individuals who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing on a local, state, and national level.

B. Skills

53. Prepare students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing in the appropriate use of interpreters.

VII. COMMUNICATION and COLLABORATIVE PARTNERSHIPS

KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS BEYOND COMMON CORE

A. Knowledge

54. Available resources to help parents of children who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing deal with their concerns regarding educational options and communication modes/philosophies for their children.

55. Roles and responsibilities of teachers and support personnel in educational practice for Deaf/Hard of Hearing (e.g., educational interpreters, tutors, notetakers, etc.)

56. Effects of communication on the development of family relationships and strategies used to facilitate communication in families with children who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

57. Services provided by governmental and non-governmental agencies or individuals in the ongoing management of children who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

B. Skills

58.Teach students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing to use support personnel effectively (e.g., educational interpreters, tutors, notetakers, etc.)

59.Facilitate communication between the child who is Deaf/Hard of Hearing and his family/caregivers.

60.Facilitate coordination of support personnel (e.g., interpreters) to meet the diverse communication needs of the student who is Deaf/Hard of Hearing and/or primary caregivers.

VIII. Professionalism and Ethical Practices

KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS BEYOND COMMON CORE

A. Knowledge

61.Ability to seek out process for acquiring the needed skills in modes/philosophies of education of students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing in which an individual was not prepared.

62.Consumer and professional organizations, publications, and journals relevant to the field of education of students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

B. Skills

63.Actively seek interaction with adults in the Deaf community to maintain/improve ASL, English signs,or cues as consistent with program philosophy.

64.Demonstrate ability to interact with a variety of individuals who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing on an adult-to-adult level.

65.Provide families with the knowledge and skills to make appropriate choices needed to enhance development and transition of their children who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

66. Participate in the activities of professional organization relevant to the education of students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.