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Cued Speech

Key words: Information, Speech and Auditory Information

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Date: Mon, 29 Apr 1996 22:17:18 0400

Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: JLDunlap@AOL.COM

Subject: Cued Speech--help

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

Hi! I'm trying to research Cued Speech. I'm an itinerant teacher, and am using it with one child at the parents' request. I've had a day's training and have been using it with the student during the two times a week I see him.

What I'm trying to figure out, is what are the strengths and weaknesses of Cued Speech. I'm trying to do this in a way that is informative, not one that "slams" this or any other approach.

I'll be honest, with the three-year-old I'm working with, I'm frustrated by my inability to understand him. He is extremely bright and uses his residual hearing very well, often repeating sounds that surprise me. However, I don't understand the majority of what he is trying to tell me. (He does not Cue when he speaks.) Although his receptive vocabulary is probably not what I would expect from a child his age who signs, he is definitely making progress. From what I've been told, this is normal.

As I'm using Cued Speech in isolation (one on one with), I've wondered what in general are seen as strengths and weaknesses. What children does it work best with? Is it usually used in combination with Sign Language? What are some good resources? (Currently I'm borrowing _The Cued Speech Resource Book for Parents of Deaf Children_.)

One thing that puzzles me is why the majority of the information I read is all success stories and positive. I have a hard time believing that every child that has been exposed to Cued Speech is successful with it. (I would say that about any approach.)

Also, have any computer programs been developed or are there any materials that are out there that would be good for showing hand shapes with words?

I'm open for any information, whether it seems positive or negative. I'm also open for any suggestions. :)

Feel free to e-mail me privately if you are uncomfortable sending your response to the list.

Thanks!

Julie Dunlap
JLDunlap@aol.com

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Date: Tue, 30 Apr 1996 18:11:43 0400

Reply-To: Amy Ruberl

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: Amy Ruberl

Subject: Re: Cued Speech--help

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

In-Reply-To: <960429221718_103175297@emout12.mail.aol.com>

Hi Julie,

I see that you use AOL, have you checked out the Cued Speech folder and asked the same questions? Just a suggestion.

I am a communication specialist and itinerant teacher of d/hoh students. I work with all the high school age cuers in Montgomery County Maryland(about 14). I am also the president of the newly formed Maryland Cued Speech Association.

All the teachers in MCPS that utilize CS are trying to gather information about the success rate etc. of CS and such how such factors as age began cueing, amount of parental cueing, amount of residual hearing, etc. seems to play in the success rate of CS students. Unfortunately we are still in the very beginning stages of our research.

However, I do have some general observations of cuekids, those who started cueing before 3 and have parents that cue during all waking hours are in general successful. They have excellent language skills, have good relationships with their families, and are generally successful.

The key I believe is consistent cueing throughout a day and in a variety of settings. Kids that come late to cueing need more direct instruction with it, more time to catch up, and constant cueing. Without parental support, without a consistent message the development will be slow and the success rate not as high for any student. The students I see that are not successful generally do not have parents that cue consistently and/or came to cueing very late (after 10) after failing in other programs.

Your frustration with not understanding your student is a problem. Why doesn't he cue expressively? You can develop your cue reading skills if he is encouraged to cue. How do his parents feel about him cueing expressively?

I would like to send your original message to a few colleagues of mine to get their opinion, do you mind if I forward a copy to them?

I would be happy to continue a discussion with you. You have some great questions. Keep asking and digging for information!

Amy Ruberl
ruberla@gwis2.circ.gwu.edu

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Date: Tue, 30 Apr 1996 16:50:05 0700

Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: KAREN LUTTGE

Subject: Re: Cued Speech--help

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

In-Reply-To: <960429221718_103175297@emout12.mail.aol.com>

Unfortunately Cued Speech had a god foundation but , it seems, is fizzling out. It is used by less people than speech or sign so its communication pool is very limited. Maybe a good way to help teach speech , but for communication purposes in general ...Who would this child communicate with ? Just something to think about ...

Karen Luttge, CA School for the Deaf, Fremont CA

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Date: Wed, 1 May 1996 10:42:20 0400

Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: Mbeany@AOL.COM

Subject: Re: Cued Speech-help

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

Cued speech will definitely help with lipreading. and only requires a short time to learn. The drawback is that if you only cue you cannot communicate with other signers, so I would think cued speech and sign language would be more appropriate depending on the situation.

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Date: Wed, 1 May 1996 17:12:01 0400

Reply-To: Amy Ruberl

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: Amy Ruberl

Subject: Re: Cued Speech--help

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

In-Reply-To:

Wow, I was very surprised to read this message! Cued Speech is not fizzling out! We have 25 CS transliterators and 43 CS students in Montgomery County, Maryland. Our numbers grow every year! The cue camps that happen all over the country grow every year! I would say that our initial base of parents was incredibly committed and wonderful. Now the face of CS is changing as CS becomes an established option just like any other, and we too have parents that are not as committed to using it at home just as we have parents that don't learn to sign.

As far as who will the child communicate with, anyone who will listen and understand him and/or learn how to cue(which takes 25 hours then time to build speed). Who will he sign with? hearing peers don't normally sign- what happens if there is no one around who signs? Who would this child communicate with?

Amy Ruberl
D/HOH teacher

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Date: Wed, 1 May 1996 22:53:02 -0400

Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: BennaT@AOL.COM

Subject: Re: Cued Speech--help

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

I have had training in Cued Speech and have used the system for articulation practice. I understand all your concerns and will share my perspective. Cued Speech is not a language, or mode of communication, but a manual system for displaying phonemes to assist with oral communication. There are enclaves of students using the system, primarily on the East Coast. There is a National Cued Speech Ass'n in North Carolina (NCSA), and more people who cue in that part of the country. I believe the book you are using is relatively new and an excellent resource on cueing. As for a visual to learn the handshapes of words, the system is so precisely based on phonemes that the phonemic page tells it all. I think there may be a set of videotapes for practice. NCSA will know about them.

It is common for the children who use cueing not to cue expressively, as they use it for understanding speech more than for conveying meaning. I know of several children who have gone through school with cued speech interpreters, keeping up with the currriculum. I know others who have fallen further behind each year (like any child placed in a system that doesn't work for them).

Orin Cornett, the creator of the system, once told me that we should give up signing and do nothing but cue for one year to see how well it works. I politely explained that signing works so well we would not be giving it up, but wanted to try cued speech for articulation practice and therapy, since my child wanted to use speech to communicate with hearing people. I never met a child who couldn't tell the difference between cueing and signing, so the system seems to work well as a tool for oral communication with signers who choose to use voice. Though Dr. Cornett initially felt children would be confused by the dual systems, he has changed his mind and has said publicly that Cued Speech is a good tool for signing students to use.

Our personal experience was that Cued Speech worked well for a while for artic practice and we still use it to visualize long words, My daughter has consistently asked for the sign for all new vocabulary. Her language development has outpaced the children we knew using only oral methods to learn language.

Perhaps the reason that all the news about Cued Speech is success stories is that the only people researching it are the proponents of the system as a communication mode. It is a wonderful adjunct to oral communication; however, those who use it instead of sign will not be able to use it to communicate with others who are deaf. Cueing is being used successfully to teach phonetics and reading to hearing children who are dyslexic, or have other learning disabilities.

For more resources:

National Cued Speech Association, P.O. Box 31345, Raleigh, NC 27622

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Date: Wed, 1 May 1996 11:15:23 0400

Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: JLDunlap@AOL.COM

Subject: Fwd: cs help

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

In a message dated 96-04-30 23:36:39 EDT, Ozwiz writes:

------------------------------------------

Forwarded message:

Subj: cs help

Date: 96-04-30 23:36:39 EDT

From: Ozwiz

To: JLDunlap

CC: burkak@netcom.com,Ozwiz

First, may I suggest that more than one day's training would be helpful if you are going to use CS professionally with a kid. As for all the success stories, I've been around CS for a number of years and have yet to meet a "cue failure." (as in "oral failure"). As for resources, try the CS board on aol, try NCSA@aol.com, try the SKI-HI program, and try my book (see below). Where do u live, perhaps there's a program nearby. Or come to a cue camp this summer (I can provide a list). Or get a copy of my email list of professionals, parents, kids and young adults who use CS. The main factor in poor success with CS (as with most anything else) is lack of parental involvement, poor language models, and inconsistent use. CS does not replace sign (as in ASL), but it does give 100% clear access to the code of verbal English, leading to good phonics and word attack skills. It doesn't produce good speech -- that's what speech therapy is for. Visible Language would be a better term. CS handles the English part of ASL/English bilingualism quite well in families with hearing parents, leaving the ASL part to be modeled (in my opinion) by good or native ASL users.

Hope that helps. Since I don't subscribe to EDUDEAF (someone forwarded me your letter), perhaps you could post the above for me. Feel free to ask more questions.

==============

I've written a book "Silent Dancing: A Journey of Discovery" on the subject of encountering & dealing with deafness as a parent. You might find it both inspirational and useful. There is also an appendix listing resources, books, other sources of informantion & research results. The book is written for parents, educators and professionals, but not for particular teaching modalities:

Oz Crosby
PO Box 2490
Park City UT 84060
$18 includes postage & handling
Fax 801-647-9690

To give you a feel for the writing, here's an excerpt from the epilog. I've added a few comments in brackets since this is lifted out of context:

"This has been the story of one family's choices. Other families in a similar situation may have picked journeys that lead to alternate destinations. Had we made different decisions, DJ our profoundly deaf daughter would have a different mix of skills by now, but we're happy with what she has language, participation in family life, the gift of literacy, and the beginnings of bilingualism.

"DJ now has adult Deaf role models in her life who are teaching her ASL; Carina her hard-of-hearing sister is also learning to sign. DJ's speech, though far from perfect, continues to improve. Perhaps a device I'm working on with the Archimedes Project at Stanford will help: it will use a pocket computer to recognize consistent but unclear speech and repeat it in a clear synthesized voice. It will also recognize normal speech and display it on a screen for a deaf person to read.

"In May of 1993, DJ was almost five years old. She had spent two and a half years in a self-contained classroom with a teacher who was certified to teach deaf students and who cued to the whole class. In the fall, she would go into a mainstream class with a regular teacher and would have to depend on a transliterator for access. Her special teacher wanted to be sure she was ready for the shift. He sent her and a classmate to first grade language arts for a few brief sessions each week so they could practice watching a transliterator, putting their names at the top of class work, and sitting at a desk. Within two weeks, however, DJ had figured out that the instructions the teacher was reading: "Color the bird redx Draw a circle around the bearx" were also printed on her paper. So she started reading on her own and doing the work by herself.

"Within another two weeks, she had figured out that the printing she was seeing on the page was the same as the letters she had been copying for almost a year, so she began to write notes. The first time she did this, Debbi my wife had told her she couldn't have a doughnut until she finished breakfast. Undeterred, DJ pulled a scrap of paper out of the trash, printed "D-O-N-U-T," and drew a circle.

"Soon after she turned five, DJ began reading us some of her bedtime stories. When I was reading a book, I would ask her to find individual words on the pages as I cued them. She was able to locate words like: "measure, squeeze, wooden depressor, and astounding" accurately and without hesitation. It was clear that she was sounding out the words using Cued Speech: when I miscued "overwhelmed" she couldn't find it; when I corrected myself, she immediately showed it to me. DJ has been tested for reading skills and scored in the 99.99th percentile compared with hearing children her age. People say, "Well, it's just because she's brilliant." I do think our daughter is bright, but how would we have ever known, had that brightness been smothered under a blanket of non-communication or illiteracy? There are many roads to success I'm forever grateful that we found at least one of them.

"DJ is now five and a half in early 1994 . The other night she read me the children's book: 'I Want to Be an Astronaut.' Maybe the dream that she would be an astronaut I expressed in her birth announcement will become her dream too, but I have come to accept that she will have her own life to live and dreams to follow. Who knows where the road will lead from here? What parent ever knows the answer to that question? What we do know is that there will be magic and much to treasure. It will be the adventure that was promised. We will teach our daughters to hear in new ways. They will teach us to see."

========

HERE IS SOME CS CAMP INFO -- WHERE DO U LIVE?

Cued Speech:

Camps & Workshops

Camp Cheerio: May 16-May 19, near Charlotte, NC
Director: Beverly Mahoney (910)643-9408
Staffing: Judy DeLong (919)772-2852

Cue Camp New York: May 23-May 27, northern New Jersey
Director: Sarina Roffe (718)434-7404; (718)434-4429 TTY
Staffing: Cathy Quenin (716)227-0355

MD Weekend Workshop: June 7-June 9, Rockville, MD
Contact: Pat Akemann (301)460-2296

Camp Cuetah: June 20-June 26: Brighton, UT
Directors: Oz Crosby (801)647-3997
Shellie Burrow (801)654-5106 V/TTY
Staffing: Linda Balderson (301)774-4946 V/TTY

Camp Courage: August 20-24: near Minneapolis, MN
Directors: Janet Poulsen (612)474-2665
Deirdre Clements (507)289-5795

Document 8 of 12

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Date: Fri, 3 May 1996 19:30:30 0400

Reply To: Amy Ruberl

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: Amy Ruberl

Subject: Re: Cued Speech help

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

In-Reply-To:

I never said the student shouldn't be signing!!! I agree that ASL and CS are best together and a true Bi-Bi approach would be ASL and English via cues! I wholly support such a system and would love to see research in this area as well!!!!

I apologize for sounding obnoxious. I know that ASL is reported to be the third most common language in the US (YEAH!) . My point was if there is no peer group in the area it really doesn't matter what system is being used. You can't tell me that any town you go to has a large enough ASL population to support a family! I can't believe that in the Dakotas, many rural towns, and many midwest states there is a plethora of deaf adults waiting to communicate with a youngster! Nor are there tons of CS families! My point was any system works with parental support and outreach, the system is unimportant. And that CS is faster for a hearing person to learn than ASL which, like any foreign language, takes a long time to become fluent, and many Deaf adults say that hearing people will never become completely fluent in ASL proficient, yes fluent, no .

I support cueing students learning how to sign. 90% of my cueing students sign also, and when a signing deaf individual enters a conversation we immediately switch to sign language! Why wouldn't we!!? However, only the Deaf of Deaf student at the high school level have equivalent language skills to the CS students!

I fully support parental choice and humbly apologize to everyone for offending and misleading the readers of this list! I was offended by the post that I responded to that was saying CS is not going to be around very long and obviously did not reread my message and temper the tone.

I know very few CS advocates that disregard sign language as a valid form of communication for their children! I do know some, and am sorry I sounded like one of them.

Amy R.

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Date: Sun, 5 May 1996 13:33:09 -0500

Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: "Leon A. Metlay"

Subject: Cued speech/code switching

Comments: To: EDUDEAF@UKCC.uky.edu

Comments: cc: klionsky@orion.rad.rochester.edu

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

I've been following the CS discussion with interest. Our 2.5 yr old deaf daughter Hanni goes to a preschool program in which most of the kids sign, but one kid cues. One teacher signs for the signers and another cues for the cuer. Hanni has started to cue, first to the cuing child and her teacher at school and more recently to us! This was unexpected, to say the least. We're trying to decide what, if anything, we should do about it.

We have been raising Hanni signing, do Pidgen at home, and really hadn't planned on cuing. But, if Hanni is picking up CS anyways, perhaps it presents an avenue to give Hanni more English grammar. On the other hand, much emphasis is placed on consistency at home with whatever communication method we choose. Would we confuse her if we sign sometimes and cue others? Should one of us always cue and the other always sign? Or, given that Hanni will get signing at school and from her deaf Aunts, Uncles, and cousins, should both of us cue at home? Or, am I blowing consistency all out of proportion? ("A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds"- Emerson ;- )

I'm sure some of you've dealt with these issues before. We'd love some suggestions.

Leon

p.s. My wife has started to learn CS. I've been resisting it so far.

--

Leon A. Metlay, M.D.,Associate Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
University of Rochester Medical Center
P.O. Box 626
Rochester, NY 14642
Phone: (716) 275-5691
Fax: (716) 273-1027
lmetlay@acu.pathology.rochester.edu
http://wwwminer.lib.rochester.edu/wwwml/Leon/URPLM.html

"Most ass drivers are evil, most camel drivers are decent, most sailors are saintly, the best among physicians is going to Gehenna, and the best of butchers is a partner of Amalek" -R. Judah, in Mish. Kidd. 4:14

Document 10 of 12

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Date: Sun, 5 May 1996 18:21:12 -0500

Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: Claire Wells

Subject: Re: Cued speech/code switching

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

In-Reply-To:

On Sun, 5 May 1996, Leon A. Metlay wrote:

> the cuer. Hanni has started to cue, first to the cuing child and her teacher at school and more recently to us! This was unexpected, to say the least. We're trying to decide what, if anything, we should do about it.

Hanni :-) I love that name :-) I don't have any real answers. Just some experiences to share.

Consistency between home and school makes language development go faster, it seems, but then there are families who have hearing children who only use ASL at home and there is only spoken and written English at school (ditto with Spanish/English, whatever). Those kids mix the two languages a bit during the developmental stages, but eventually learn to sort it out between the two models, as long as the models don't mix them ;-)

We had a kid here (profound loss) that had a different teacher with a different philosophy every six months from the age of 1 to 5. Some were voice off PSE, some were simcom, some were oral only.... Mom still used oral only with him. (She was a primo model, by the way... not just a blah, blah, blah mouth flapping ;-) Guess what he ended up preferring? ;-) Oral only. That kid never did learn to sign until he was about 12.

Anyway, the point is that he chose his own way, though he was exposed to many different methods. And he ended up choosing the method used by his mom. I don't think Dad was very involved.

> We have been raising Hanni signing, do Pidgen at home, and really hadn't planned on cuing. But, if Hanni is picking up CS anyways, perhaps it presents an avenue to give Hanni more English grammar. On the other hand, much emphasis is placed on consistency at home with whatever communication method we choose. Would we confuse her if we sign sometimes and cue others?

I'll tell ya... I've had a heck of a time developing fluency in CS since I've been fingerspelling for so many years. My mind thinks the F sound and you know what shape my hand ends up being in ;-) Oh, yeah... the placement is always correct, but... arrrgggghhhhh!

> Should one of us always cue and the other always sign? Or, given that Hanni will get signing at school and from her deaf Aunts, Uncles, and cousins, should both of us cue at home? Or, am I blowing consistency all out of proportion? ("A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds"- Emerson ;- )

Consistency is important, but I do think it is possible to sign ASL to her and Cue to her as well.

Brainstorming a way of incorporating both ASL and CS, I'd say that the Deaf adults would be her ASL models and the hearing adults would be her CS models. I think SEE and ASL could be separated in this way, too, if there were quality models of both.

When you do Pidgin, is it voice on or off? Is Hanni aided? How much benefit does she get from her hearing aids? Is she voicing or mouthing the words when she cues or when she signs?

I think Pidgin is a very comfortable way for hearing folks who don't know ASL very well and Deaf folks who do to communicate.

CS is capable of producing all those aggravating "sound" words in kiddie lit that signing has so much trouble with... All the doo-wahs and shoop-shoops and swishes and swoops and such ;-) It is a very efficient way for speech therapists to represent sounds, and then the classroom teacher can also use it to teach the kids how to pronounce a new word. Not all teachers can adapt to this. Some are pretty resistant or else just don't have the ability to switch from one to the other with any fluency at all. (I can cue 3 words a minute... I'm a fine one to talk)

I've been communicating with a mom whose daughter, 12, has always used CS and then transferred to a school that used SEE and her daughter took to SEE like crazy. It's so hard to know at the very beginning.... at Hanni's age.

> I'm sure some of you've dealt with these issues before. We'd love some suggestions.
p.s. My wife has started to learn CS. I've been resisting it so far.

It's the old fogeys like me who have trouble with this ;-) The kids seem to figure out to whom they need to sign, to whom they can cue, to whom they can use speech only.... smart little suckers. If you don't learn to cue, she won't cue with you.. only with Mom. If she has one of you at home who is able to understand her, I think that should be fine, since she's in the sorting-it-all-out stage right now. If she ends up preferring to cue at home, then I think you'd learn it at that point. You'd just have to :-) It's just that right now, who knows?

Claire :-)

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Date: Mon, 6 May 1996 21:39:45 -0500

Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: Claire Wells

Subject: Re: Cued speech/code switching

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

In-Reply-To:

I remember Lew Golan and Simon Roffe (grew up with CS and now at NYU) mentioning this sound. CS has been adapted for many different languages. Maybe an international CS expert will be able to help us out here.... I could ask the folks at the NCSA in Raleigh, if needed, but I think someone lurking here may already know the answer. I have Simon's email address, if you'd like it. I'm sure he wouldn't mind.

> >(ditto with Spanish/English, whatever). Those kids mix the two languages a bit during the developmental stages, but eventually learn to sort it out between the two models, as long as the models don't mix them ;-)

> So, you're suggesting we don't have to choose between signing and cuing at home, but that while we're doing one, we shouldn't mix in bits of the other. Have I got that right?

Let me back up a bit. And maybe an example will help. I learned how to pair SEE (to demonstrate English) with ASL from a woman at Boystown.. years ago.... This is great to do when reading or communicating with very young kids who are signing. And great fun for a ham like me ;-)

No one has ever advocated this for cueing kids, as far as I know, but I don't see why you couldn't cue the sentence and then do it in ASL right after that (especially if you knew the language or vocab. would be way over the child's head). I could be totally off base here.

Additionally, I know of folks who can sign and cue who do both within a story .... they use CS for the doo-wahs and use signing for all the rest. story .... they use CS for the doo-wahs and use signing for all the rest. They use CS to cue a kid into the pronuciation. So no.. I don't think "mixing" the two methods is taboo. They are really kept separate in this way.... but here, in this example... they are using SEE and CS and not ASL and CS. Rather more like using CS as a helper when SEE can't illustrate some things in a sound-based manner.

Mixing the two languages, English and ASL, is more evident in PSE than any other illustration I can think of. It's really not English, because so much is left out. It's really not ASL because it's so English ;-)

Still, it communicates very well between the two. We agree on that. It's just not a proper model of either, imho, for language development purposes. Like I said... just mho.

> Voice on. Hanni has aids, and insists on wearing them, but almost never acts as if she is responding to noises around her, even very loud ones. She sometimes vocalizes while signing but the sounds bear no relationship (that we can detect) to what she's signing. One of her teachers says she vocalizes while cueing, but we haven't noticed that.

She knows that Cueing is dependent on speech... at least mouthing. And she's picked up that mouthing and voicing often go together. She's 2 and a half? Whoa. Can I move where you are? I wanna be around when she's growing up! So much fun!

Does she get auditory training? Learning to listen and to attach meaning to even the smallest bits of auditory information? This and speech should be a part of any program, whether it is sign-based or not. She's a bit young maybe for formal speech training, but listening skills are important to all at this age. Does she wear an FM system at school?

> >I think Pidgin is a very comfortable way for hearing folks who don't know ASL very well and Deaf folks who do to communicate. That's why we do it.

Yes!

But language development is our main concern at the moment, not communicating between the languages, right? So... try this...

Have your wife write out a list of 20 sentences and have you sign them in PSE on a videotape (no voicing or mouthing). Then, she hides the list and stashes the tape.... then... 2 years pass.. tick tick tick... You view the tape and write down what you signed. ;-)

> That's a good point, though if you want to avoid mixing modes, I suppose you'd want to wait until the child has established communication patterns before doing this. Or am I being too picky? I guess, I've got no sense of how much inconsistency is tolerable.

Patterns in language, the form of language, is very important. If kids can get that, and understand the meaning and the function behind it, that is what it is all about.

I'm thinking she wants more structure, more form.

I used to hate SEE and CS... laughed and scoffed at them both. I was the worst! Had to eat my words. You may have to, too.

> Well, we know Hanni will choose for herself eventually. And we're telling ourselves that no matter what we do, when she's a teenager she'll tell us we did the wrong thing. So we just do what seems right at the time.

Hahahaha... Right :-) I'm hearing and so is my mom... and she's heard this from time to time from me. My daughter's 17... I'm waiting for the bomb to drop.....

> I like the suggestion that I don't need to learn to cue until Hanni decides that at home she only wants to cue. That will save me some work right now. (Just my lazy side talking, if she continues to be interested in CS, I won't wait until she refuses to talk to me any other way.)

Exactly. The most important thing for you, right now, is to keep your options open. Hanni's a lucky one to have a mom and dad like y'all. I feel like I've asked more questions than you have. No two kids are alike and you and your wife will know Hanni better than anyone and ... if that ends up being CS... you need to look sincere when you advocate for it, Dad ;-) Picking on you a bit. I can do that 'cause I've felt the same way.

Claire :-)

Document 12 of 12

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Date: Thu, 9 May 1996 20:54:58 -0500

Reply-To: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

Sender: A Practical Discussion List Regarding Deaf Education

From: "Leon A. Metlay"

Subject: Re: Cued speech/code switching (long post)

Comments: To: EDUDEAF@UKCC.uky.edu

Comments: cc: klionsky@orion.rad.rochester.edu, cng9@vivanet.com

To: Multiple recipients of list EDUDEAF

When I posted my original query about code switching, I was unaware that one of my daughter's teachers is on the Edudeaf list. Quite a surprise when she wrote me with some more information! I thought her additional comments were interesting and she agreed to my forwarding them to the list. Names are changed to initials for confidentiality of other parties.

I have compiled her message, my reply, and her reply to me. Guide to the perplexed:
>>> indicates Cindy's note to me
>> indicates my reply to her
> indicates her reply to me
indicates my later comments

Cindy Neuroth-Gimbrone wrote:

>>>Subject: Hanni's Cued speech/code switching

>>>Just some more "data" on Hanni for your thought process. My forte is gestural/sign systems so I have been following Hanni's (and the other children's) use of cueing within the context of the group, it's very interesting. Since I am somewhat of a research nerd, I have been systemmatically collecting data on all of these children to see what they are doing with it. Seems like a good time to share what the trends are:

>>>All of the children are altering the handshapes of CS. They add a contact to the body (e.g., the open hand held in front of the cheek area is articulated in the same location but is touched to the cheek)

>>We've noticed that, though I at least was not aware that cues are not supposed to touch the face.

>This is what I had observed in C.F. the teacher who Cues , she does not touch her face. However, I asked about this and it seems to be an "optional" sort of contact, I have noticed another person in our center, C. touching her neck area for the vowels. But you are right, touching the face appears to be a "stylistic" variation in the therapists who use it - but interestingly, it does not appear to be optional with the children, they all contact their face when they cue.

>>>Movement is also added to the handshape/cue: for example, the above cue is touched to the cheek and moved twice (like a name sign) and in fact, this is the "name sign" the children use for the cueing child.

>>Movement is part of the reason that I sometimes don't know if Hanni is cueing or if she's using a sign that I haven't learned yet.

>Yes, the children's alterations of the cues make them look very sign-like. Also, I would mention that the children only use a very restricted set of cues, those articulated in the chin/cheek area. Further, the particular cue-handshapes the children are using do not conflict with unmarked handshapes in ASL (B, 5).

>>>Hanni demonstrates codeswitching at the center, she has been noted to cue only to C.F. She also vocalizes with the cue. Oftentimes, she is seated next to S. the child who Cues and C.F. immediately cues before she goes to Hanni for a turn. Under these conditions, Hanni spontaneously cues to C.F., but if C.F. misses Hanni's cue (she might not be finished with S. yet), Hanni might turn to R. another teacher or myself and sign.

>>We'd heard that she cues to S. as well as to C.F. I don't think we've recognized vocalization with cueing at home.

>Yes, C.F. has mentioned this. It hadn't shown up in the data samples I had collected - doesn't mean it doesn't exist (ah! the flaws of systematic collection of data! smile)

>> Is there any relationship between the sounds she makes and the actual sounds represented by the cues? I would guess not.

>I followed up with C.F., her feeling is that there is a relationship - the above cue I have described represents "m" - I believe there is a confounding factor here, "m" is a sound Hanni can make, I don't know about the association with the cue, C.F. says yes, I'm not sure. C.F. sees her individually, I only see her in the group. You decide what you think of that data (smile).

>>>She has the ability to adjust to what she perceives to be various individuals communication style or system.

>>We've had previous experience watching my deaf sister's oldest (hearing) daughter in mixed group figuring out whether to sign or talk to someone. It's amazing what kids can do. I guess I'm surprised that Hanni can be so selective at center and yet try both with us at home even though we have not cued at all. Nina is making progress learning cues, and perhaps as Nina cues more, so will Hanni.

>Yes, it's very interesting how children handle a bilingual - multilingual situation, they're very intelligent. Right, I don't know what to make of her cueing to you at home either. She may be so selective because I don't know cue, I don't cue with any of the children including S. She may be perceiving me as limited in my range of communication, I don't know. R. also does not cue - but S. does cue to both of us on occasion, more so before she picked up some sign. But neither of these explanations satisfy your question regarding her cueing at home. I have seen Hanni use the cueing as a clarification device, that is, if she doesn't get what she wants from C.F. on the first or second try through signing, she will cue to C.F.

>Hope you've found the data I've presented of some value for you to draw your own conclusions. This is what I've been seeing, you're adding alot of information that I don't have an opportunity to see. Hope you find some of it valuable.

>>>Cindy Neuroth-Gimbrone
>>>cng9@vivanet.com
>>>**********************************************************

Sort of a wrap-up: We've found this discussion very useful, and now feel more comfortable about cueing at home. We want to thank everyone who wrote to us about this topic. Just to make life interesting, Hanni is also trying to finger spell! Yesterday she wanted something, I couldn't understand what, and she raised her righthand an sort of sinuously wriggled her fingers. Oh boy.

Uploaded by: Melissa Close/Kent State University/Deaf Education Major