Council on Education of the Deaf
Office of Program Evaluation
Standards for the Evaluation of Programs for the Preparation of Teachers of Students who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
Revised August 15, 1998
Council on Education of The Deaf
Standards For The Evaluation of Programs
For The Preparation of Teachers of The Deaf and Hard of Hearing
The following Standards, prepared by the Committee on Professional Preparation and Certification and approved by the Executive Board of the Council on Education of The Deaf on June 26, 1977, as revised January 1980, June 1985, and July 1998, represent a description of essential elements of preparation programs for teachers of dear and hard of hearing children. This document is designed to serve as an aid to institutions offering such programs and to panels of reviewers involved in the evaluation of such programs.
Council on Education of the Deaf
The Council on Education of the Deaf (CED) is a national organization, the Executive Board of which is made up of representatives appointed to serve from its six member organizations: The Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf (AGB), The Conference of Executives of American Schools for the Deaf (CEASD), the Convention of American Instructors of the Deaf (CAID), Association of College Educators - Deaf and Hard of Hearing (ACE-DHH), The National Association of the Deaf (NAD), and the American Society for Deaf Children (ASDC). Individual members of these organizations represent more than a substantial majority of the educators and professional personnel involved in the education of deaf and hard of hearing children and youth in the United States, as well as parents of deaf and hard of hearing children, and deaf adults themselves.
Certification of Teachers
Since 1930, there has been a program designed to recognize members of the profession who have achieved a mutually agreed-upon minimum level of professional preparation and teaching experience in educational programs for deaf and hard of hearing children. The program, consisting of recognition in the form of a certificate, was first administered by the CEASD. Such recognition was open to all educators of deaf and hard of hearing children. The program continued under the CEASD until 1969, by which time over 6,000 persons had been certified. In July of 1969, the program, by mutual agreement of member organizations was transferred to the Council on Education of the Deaf. After a comprehensive national study and survey, the CED revised and updated the certification standards.
Evaluation of Programs
The approval of programs for the professional preparation of teachers in this field, administered by the CEASD from 1930 to 1969, involved voluntary participation in an evaluation process for approval by those institutions offering programs for the preparation of teachers. Forty-six programs in institutions of higher education had been evaluated and approved. After adoption of the entire program by the CED in 1969, the voluntary evaluation of preparation programs in response to demand was continued.
Standards contained in this document for CED program review and evaluation represent what personnel in teacher education believe should be included in an effective program for the preparation of teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing. It is anticipated that this document will be used by institutions involved in the process of self-evaluation of their program activities and by review panels representing the CED or other professional groups.
In preparing this set of standards for programs for the preparation of teachers of deaf and hard of hearing children, the CED Committee had made extensive use of the model, format, and language in the document Standards Procedures & Policies for the Accreditation of Professional Education Units (Washington, CD: National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education,1995) and What Every Special Educator Must Know: The International Standards for the Preparation and Certification of Special Education Teachers (Reston, VA: The Council for Exceptional Children, 1996).
Explanation of Terms
Program: Refers to the complex of activities, services, and curriculum involved in the preparation of teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing.
Certification Standards: Refer to CED Standards for the Certification of Teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing. These standards incorporate the CEC Common Core of Knowledge and Skills Essential for All Beginning Special Education Teachers, CEC Knowledge and Skills for All Beginning Special Education Teachers of Students Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing, and the CEC Institutional and Program Requirements.
1.0 Curriculum For Core Programs At Provisional Certification Level
Curriculum for teacher education is designed to achieve explicitly stated objectives. These objectives are determined in relation to both the professional roles and educational settings for which preparation programs are designed and behavioral outcomes sought. It is assumed that the design of each curriculum for the preparation of teachers adopted by the institution reflects an awareness of research and development in teacher education and the location of deaf and hard of hearing children in a variety of settings for their formal educational programs.
Curriculum includes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to be attained by students from courses, services, readings, practicum experiences, and other planned learning activities. A program of learning refers to the sequencing of those planned learning activities to be achieved by the students.
1.1 Design of Curriculum
Standard: Each curriculum reflects the institution's philosophy regarding education of students who are deaf or hard of hearing and personnel preparation, its conception of the role of the teacher, and its program objectives.
a. How is the institution's philosophy reflected in the program to prepare teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing?
b. What is the program philosophy (i.e, auditory-oral, bilingual-bicultural, or comprehensive), and what are the underlying assumptions and the objectives of the program?
c. What evidence indicates that specific objectives for each curriculum have been defined and that the objectives reflect the institution's analysis of the professional school position(s) for which students are being prepared?
d. What information shows that the teacher preparation program and each curriculum are designed to meet the stated objectives?
1.2 Curriculum Components
Students preparing to become teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students develop competencies that are either specific to this field or are generally applicable to all teachers or to all special education teachers. The field-specific competencies are represented by the joint CED CEC AKnowledge and Skills Essential for All Beginning Special Education Teachers of Students Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing,@ and the general competencies are represented by the ACEC Common Core of Knowledge and Skills Essential for All Beginning Special Education Teachers.@ These latter, general, skills can be considered to be prerequisite or co-requisite to the preparation on the area of education of students who are deaf and hard of hearing.
Standard1.2.1: Each program=s curriculum should consist of planned learning experiences in the following components of the joint CED CEC Knowledge and Skills Essential for All Beginning Special Education Teachers of Students Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing:
See CED Manual II, Attachment III, Form #7 for specific knowledge and skills statements in each of the above areas. Complete Form #7 to show how the program meets Standard 1.2.1.
For each component, questions such as these should be asked.
a. What planned learning experiences are offered?
b. Are adequate portions of time (e.g., semester-hours) and appropriate portions of time devoted to learning experiences for each component?
c. Are the required knowledge and skills developed for each component?
d. How is the student's acquisition of the required knowledge and skills evaluated?
e. What provisions, if any, are made for the assessment of the individual student's entering skills and knowledge and subsequent individualization in this component?
Standard1.2.2: As the generic prerequisite or co-requisite portion of their student=s preparation, each program should ensure that their students have met the competencies in the CEC Common Core of Knowledge and Skills Essential for All Beginning Special Education Teachers.
See CED Manual II, Attachment III, Form #8 for specific knowledge and skills statements in each of the above areas. Complete Form #8 to show how the program meets Standard 1.2.2.
For each component, questions such as these should be asked.
a. What planned learning experiences are offered?
b. Are adequate portions of time (e.g., semester-hours) and appropriate portions of time devoted to learning experiences for this component?
c. Are the required competencies developed for this component?
d. How is the student's acquisition of the required competencies evaluated?
e. What provisions, if any, are made for the assessment of the individual student's entering skills and knowledge and subsequent individualization in this component?
1.3 The Specialization Component
The specialization component of the curriculum refers to the area or areas defined in the CED standards as:
EARLY CHILDHOOD SECONDARY [Indicate Content Area(s)]
which the institution has selected as areas of specialization for the program.
Content for the teaching specialty or specialties implies the central importance of appropriate subject matter and practicum for the acquisition and development of teacher competencies within the areas stated above and in addition to the common core. Further, it implies that teaching requires two types of knowledge: (1) that which is needed by teachers as a base for their professional specializations, and (2) that which is to be acquired by the deaf and hard of hearing child or youth. It is the responsibility of the faculty of the Program to determine such content: to identify, select, and sequence those courses and the learning experiences offered by the institution which will satisfy this requirement; and to insure that the elements of the common core are integrated at the appropriate levels and areas of specialization.
Standard: The specialization component for each area includes the study of knowledge and skills to be acquired by pupils, teaching and learning strategies by which these pupil competencies are developed, and additional knowledge from allied fields.
a. What evidence shows that each area of specialization includes both types of content for the teaching specialization and supplementary subject matter information?
b. What information shows that the selection of courses, practicum, and other learning experiences required for specialization in the curricula embodies the judgment of members of the faculty in education of the deaf and hard of hearing and the judgment of professional persons and others involved in the area(s) of specialization?
c. What are the provisions for insuring that a systematic effort is made to keep the content of the respective teaching specializations current and relevant with developments in the appropriate disciplines as they relate to teaching the deaf and hard of hearing?
d. What evidence shows integration or interrelatedness of content for the hearing and of the deaf and hard of hearing inherent within the specialization?
e. What evidence shows content interrelatedness with and among cultural, racial and economic considerations, especially our multicultural/multiracial society as well as the cultural phenomena associated with deafness?
NOTE: In the process of self-evaluation and preparing a Program Report, please respond to each area of specialization separately. Use Form #6, in Attachment III, in CED Manual II for this information.
Practicum. i.e., observation, participation, and student teaching, is an essential and integral component of each curriculum for prospective teachers. Whereas other components of the curriculum provide the student with certain knowledge, skills, and principles of practice, the students' direct experiences with deaf and hard of hearing children and youth and with teachers and other personnel in educational situations provide them with professional models, with examples for the application of theories, knowledge, and principles of instruction, and with opportunities to develop and demonstrate their own competencies.
A wide range of facilities is available, such as residential and day programs, and facilities with mainstreaming and resource services. Students are familiarized with the full range of resources available to deaf and hard of hearing individuals, and the students carry out practicum activities in these facilities as appropriate to the program philosophy and objectives and their own professional goals.
Practicum is typically carried out over an extended period of time and is integrated with other planned learning activities within the curriculum. To insure this integration and to guide, monitor, and evaluate students' learning experiences in all phases of practicum, close and continuous supervision is provided by qualified personnel from the teacher preparation program and the practicum facilities. Furthermore, the respective roles of all personnel involved in practicum and practicum supervision are clearly defined and there is frequent and successful communication among all persons involved in practicum.
1.4.1 Standard: The curriculum incorporates a planned sequence of practicum experiences appropriate to the general curriculum, the program philosophy, and to the area of specialization. Practicum includes adequate amounts of observation and participation, WHICH INCLUDES A MINIMUM OF 150 HOURS OF DIRECTED OBSERVATION AND PARTICIPATION AND A MINIMUM OF 250 CLOCK HOURS OF STUDENT TEACHING.
a. What planned practicum experiences are offered?
b. What evidence indicates that the amount, nature, and sequencing of practicum are adequate and appropriate for the program philosophy and area of specialization?
c. Do the practicum experiences develop the required competencies?
d. How is the student's acquisition of the required competencies evaluated?
e. What provisions, if any, are made for the assessment of the individual student's entering skills and knowledge and subsequent individualization in this area?
f. What evidence shows that practicum experiences are integrated with other areas of the curriculum?
g. What are the provisions for practicum experiences in diagnosing and prescribing educational programs for typical and atypical cases?
h. What evidence confirms that practicum experience met through an internship includes an analysis of teaching behavior and an evaluation of teaching performance?
1.4.2 Standard: A wide range of practicum facilities is available, appropriate for the program philosophy. Students are familiarized with the full array of resources available to deaf and hard of hearing individuals and carry out practicum activities in these facilities as appropriate to the objectives of the program and areas of specialization and their own professional goals.
a. What schools, services, and programs are used for practicum purposes?
b. In what ways and to what extent are each of the practicum facilities utilized?
c. What evidence indicates that there are appropriate practicum facilities for the program and its areas of specialization?
d. In addition to access to a sufficient range of practicum sites to accommodate all areas of program specialization, what evidence indicates that these sites also provide variety relative to cultural, racial and economic backgrounds?
For the Program Report, use Form #1, in Attachment III of CED Manual II.
1.4.3 Standard: Qualified personnel from the teacher preparation center and from practicum facilities conduct a well-coordinated, planned program of supervision for all phases of practicum. Supervision is adequate and appropriate, in terms of its nature, frequency, and amount and its relevance to program and specialization objectives.
a. Describe the nature, frequency, and amount of supervision provided for each phase of practicum (i.e., observation, participation, student teaching).
b. Describe the respective roles and interaction of the practicum coordinator and supervisors from the teacher preparation center and the supervisors and other personnel from the practicum facilities.
c. Describe the relative amounts of supervision time provided by teacher preparation center supervisors and practicum facility supervisors. Include in this description the specific structure of the supervision process. Do teacher preparation center faculty maintain a specific visitation schedule? Does this schedule meet or exceed a level of 10-12 hours of observation/supervision during the required 250 hours of practicum?
d. What provisions are made for frequent conferences among student teachers, cooperating teachers, and supervisors from the teacher preparation program?
e. What procedures are used to record, monitor, and evaluate the teaching performance of students, and how is this information used by students and supervisors to analyze teaching behavior?
f. What information shows that relationships between professional personnel in the teacher preparation center and in the cooperating facilities contribute positively to students= experiences in practicum?
g. What is the maximum ratio of practicum students to supervising faculty which would normally be assigned to a full time equivalent person? Describe the circumstances under which the ratio might exceed 12:1.
h. What information shows that the selection, training, placement, and evaluation of cooperating teachers is managed effectively? Minimally, such information should describe and document in writing the following:
o Guidelines relative to role and responsibility of cooperating teachers, including an orientation program.
o Requirement for CED or otherwise appropriate credentials in area/level supervised and in which student will seek certification.
o Process to be utilized by cooperating teacher in structuring the practicum experience and in evaluating the student.
o Process to be used by the teacher preparation center in evaluating the practicum experience, including participation by the student.
o Policy for selection and retention of cooperating teachers and of practicum sites.
1.5 Guidelines for Program Development
Professional organizations, universities, programs for the deaf, etc. have developed numerous guidelines and strategies which have been found to be effective in the planning, development, and evaluation of a curriculum. It is expected that each program will review these various guidelines in the process of determining the content, structure, and the system of delivery for the Program.
Standard: In planning and developing the curriculum, the institution should give due consideration to existing guidelines.
a. What guidelines were utilized in developing the Program?
b. What evidence shows the effect of these guidelines on the curriculum being reviewed?
1.6 Control of Programs
Administrative structure exists primarily as a practical arrangement for formulating and achieving goals, fixing responsibility, utilizing resources, and facilitating continuous development and improvement. The standard assumes that this principle is applicable to administrative units responsible for teacher education. It is expected that the particular unit within the institution officially designated as responsible for teacher education is composed of persons who have experience in and commitment to the task of educating teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing.
The standard does not prescribe any particular organizational structure. A unit, as referred to below, may take the form of a center, council, commission, committee, department, school, college or other recognizable organizational entity.
While major responsibility for designing, approving, evaluating, and developing teacher education programs is carried by an officially designated unit, it is assumed that teacher education faculty members in the area of the deaf and hard of hearing are systematically involved in the decision-making process.
Standard: The design, approval, and continuous evaluation and development of teacher education programs are the primary responsibility of an administrative unit. The majority of the membership of this unit is composed of faculty and/or staff members who are significantly involved in the preparation of teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing.
a. What administrative unit within the institution has primary responsibility for the Program and what is its rationale for determining its membership and responsibilities?
b. What evidence shows that the majority of the membership of the administrative unit responsible for the Program is made up of faculty and/or staff members significantly involved in teacher education of the deaf and hard of hearing?
c. What activities of the administrative unit during the past two years demonstrate that it has assumed responsibility for the design, approval, and continuous evaluation and development of the Program?
d. What information indicates that the faculty members in the Program share in the decision-making process in matters related to designing, evaluating, and developing teacher education programs?
e. What formal and informal coordination exists between the administrative unit with primary responsibility for the Program and other departments or units which offer coursework in the preparation of teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing?
1.7 Graduate Programs
Standard: Programs at the graduate level provide preparation of an advanced nature, and prepare graduates to be consumers and producers of research.
Teacher education programs in education of the deaf and hard of hearing require a competent faculty which has been systematically developed into a coherent body devoted to the preparation of effective teachers. This faculty is significantly involved in the development and evaluation of teacher education in its area of specialization and in other areas offered by the institution and is engaged in systematic efforts to improve the quality of instruction and practicum experiences provided. The faculty constantly scrutinizes curricula in relation to the characteristics and needs of the students enrolled and in relation to the resources required to support the offering of acceptable programs. The following standards deal with significant aspects of faculty competence in relation to the development, execution, and review of its teacher education programs and with conditions for effective faculty performance.
"Faculty for Teacher Education" as used in standards 2.1 through 2.4 includes those faculty members responsible for instruction and supervision in all areas of the curriculum, including practicum, related to education of the deaf and hard of hearing.
Use Forms #2 and #4, in Attachment III of CED Manual II.
2.1 Competence and Utilization of Faculty
The competence of the faculty is the crucial factor in teacher education, not only for the quality of instruction which is provided, but also for the total atmosphere in which the programs are implemented. Above all, the quality of teacher education programs offered, and the degree to which such quality is maintained, depend primarily on the faculty. Faculty members' areas of expertise make possible competent instruction in all aspects of the curriculum in education of the deaf and hard of hearing and competent supervision of all types of practicum experiences.
The competence of faculty is established on the basis of academic preparation, experience, teaching, and scholarly performance. The standard assumes that advanced graduate work and experience in education of the deaf and hard of hearing and/or a related field of specialization are the minimal requirements for teaching in a collegiate institution. In certain cases, where the faculty member has not completed the requisite advanced graduate work, competence may be established on the basis of scholarly performance as reflected by publication, research, and/or recognition by professional peers in the faculty member's field of specialization.
An institution capitalizes on the academic and professional strength of its faculty by making assignments which make possible the maximum use of preparation and experience. An institution also relates faculty selection and assignment to faculty performance.
The standard does not preclude the offering of adequate programs of teacher education with a small faculty, but it does discourage the over-extension of faculty and the use of faculty in areas in which they are not competent.
Standard: An institution engaged in preparing teachers has a minimum of two qualified (CED certified) full-time faculty members (or their equivalent) in teacher education, each with post-master's degree preparation and/or demonstrated scholarly and professional competence, and each with appropriate expertise in components of the curricula (e.g., language, communication, media) and areas of specialization (e.g., preprimary, elementary, secondary, multihandicapped), one of whom is officially designated as coordinator or head of the Program and who assumes accountability for program administration, direction and evaluation.
a. Is the coordinator of the program a faculty member with a professional rank? Does he hold an earned doctorate and Professional Certification by the Council on Education of the Deaf?
b. What evidence indicates that there are full-time faculty members with qualifications requisite to competent instruction and supervision in each of the curriculum areas and specialization areas?
c. What evidence shows that all courses and other learning experiences in each of the areas specified in the standard are actually conducted by faculty members appropriately prepared to do so?
d. If any faculty members have been teaching in fields for which they are not qualified, for how long and for what special reasons has this been permitted?
e. What is done to evaluate the effectiveness of the instruction and supervision in each of the areas specified in the standard?
f. What evidence shows that faculty members are actively involved in professional development activities such as research, advanced study, and participation in professional and other groups?
2.2 Faculty Involvement with Schools
Faculty members who instruct prospective teachers need frequent contacts with school environments so that their teaching and research are current and relevant. In addition, the commitment of a teacher education faculty is to the needs of the teaching profession as a whole as well as to institutional programs. It is assumed that school personnel share with faculty members in colleges and universities a common purpose and interest in teacher education. The specialized talent of the teacher education faculty is viewed as a potential resource for providing in-service assistance to the schools in the area served by the institution.
Standard: Members of the teacher education faculty have continuing association and involvement with educational programs for the deaf and hard of hearing.
a. In what ways have members of the faculty for teacher education been associated and involved with activities of educational programs for the deaf and hard of hearing?
b. What information shows that such association and involvement are reflected in the institution's teacher education programs?
c. What information indicates that the special competencies of the teacher education faculty are reflected in the services offered to the schools?
2.3 Conditions for Faculty Service
The institution, recognizing that the faculty is the major determinant of the quality of its teacher education programs, makes provision for the efficient use of faculty competence, time, and energy. Such provisions include policies which establish maximum limits for teaching loads, permit adjustments in teaching loads when non-teaching duties are assigned, and allow time for the faculty member to do the planning involved in carrying out his assigned responsibilities.
To maintain and to improve the quality of its faculty, the institution has a plan for professional development which provides such opportunities as in-service education, sabbatical leave, travel support, summer leaves, and intra- and inter-institutional visitation. In addition, time is allocated in the load of a faculty member so that he can continue his scholarly development.
The institution recognizes that the quality of its instructional programs can be compromised if faculty members are dissipating their energy on subprofessional tasks. Therefore, provision is made for supporting services (such as those provided by instructional media technicians, laboratory and/or instructional assistants, research assistants, and secretaries and clerks) that permit faculty members to fulfill their instructional and other professional responsibilities at a high level of performance.
Standard: The institution provides conditions essential to the effective performance by the teacher education faculty. The teaching load of undergraduate program faculty is no more than the equivalent of 12 semester/quarter hours, and the teaching load of graduate program faculty is no more that the equivalent of 9 semester/quarter hours.
a. What is the plan and its supporting rationale for taking into account all professional duties and activities of the faculty in determining load?
b. What is the assigned professional load (all services rendered) for each teacher education faculty member?
c. If the load of any faculty member exceeds the established institutional policy, for how long and for what reasons has this been permitted?
d. What program does the institution have for faculty development and what evidence shows that it is operative?
e. Is support for faculty development in the program at least at the level of that for other units in the institution?
f. What is the plan for allocating supporting services to the faculty and what evidence shows that such services are provided?
2.4 Part-Time Faculty
Two kinds of situations support the employment of faculty on a part-time basis. One is the need of the institution for a special competence not represented on the regular staff and not requiring a full-time faculty member. The other is the need for additional service in areas of competence already represented on the full-time staff.
However, in the interests of operating acceptable programs. the institution prevents the fragmentation of instruction and the erosion of program quality that can accompany excessive use of part-time faculty. It is assumed that the competence of part-time faculty as indicated by academic preparation, experience, teaching, and scholarly performance is comparable to that of full-time faculty.
Standard: The requirements for part-time faculty in the institution are comparable to those for appointment to the full-time faculty and are employed only when they can make special contributions to teacher education programs.
a. What are the qualifications of the part-time faculty members in the program for the preparation of teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing and what proportion of the instruction in each curriculum is assigned to them?
b. What is the standard, average or maximum load within and without the institution for each part-time faculty member in teacher education?
c. What reasons support the use of each part-time faculty member in the program?
d. What provisions are made to insure that part-time faculty members are oriented to the basic purposes of and kept abreast of current developments in the institution's teacher education program in general?
2.5 Faculty Evaluation
Standard: Faculty are evaluated regularly and the results are used to improve teaching and the program.
3.1 Admission to Programs
Teacher education programs require students who have intellectual, emotional, and personal qualifications that promise to result in successful performance in the profession. Attention to the characteristics of students admitted to, retained in, and graduated from teacher education is essential to designing and maintaining acceptable programs.
It is assumed that an institution selects and retains qualified students in its programs and eliminates those who should not go into teaching; that it provides counseling and advising services; that it provides opportunities for student participation in the evaluation and development of programs; and that it evaluates graduates.
The following standard applies to the selection of students in the program for the preparation of teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing.
Standard: The institution applies specific criteria for admission to the program for the preparation of teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing. These criteria require the use of both objective and subjective data.
a. What are the requirements for admission to the program and what is the supporting rationale?
b. What evidence shows that the admission requirements are being met?
c. How many students applied for admission during the past two years? How many were denied admission? How many who were denied admission were subsequently admitted, and for what reasons?
d. What objective data, including test results with national norms, are used for admitting students to the teacher program?
e. Does the institution admit students who are deaf or hard of hearing? If so, what special admissions criteria are applied? What special resources are available to enable these students to meet the institutional requirements for graduation?
f. Does the program recruit students from diverse economic, racial, and cultural backgrounds and students with disabilities (other than deafness or hearing loss)?
g. Are incentives and affirmative procedures used to attract high-quality candidates who represent culturally diverse populations and individuals with various disabilities?
Use Form #3, in Attachment III of CED Manual II, to respond to this standard.
3.2 Retention of Students in Programs
The nature of the professional studies component in teacher education curricula calls for a high order of academic achievement and growth in technical competence. Grades in coursework provide the usual measures of achievement in theoretical work; observations, reports, and other modes of appraisal provide evaluations of laboratory, clinical, and practicum experiences. The institution owes it to the student to determine as objectively and systematically as possible specific strengths and weaknesses as they affect his continuing in a teacher education program
The academic competence of the teacher is a major determinant of effective teaching, but it is not the only one. Prospective teachers demonstrate those personal characteristics which will contribute to, rather than detract from, their performance in the classroom. It is assumed in the standard that the institution has the right and the obligation to consider personal factors as well as academic achievement as a basis for permitting a student to continue in a teacher education program.
Standard: The institution applies specific criteria for the retention of candidates who possess academic competencies and personal characteristics appropriate to the requirements of teaching.
a. What objective means are used to evaluate the achievement of students in each area of the professional studies component of the program for teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing?
b. What information other than course grades is used to evaluate the achievement of prospective teachers?
c. What requirements for academic competence must students meet to continue in the teacher education programs?
d. On the basis of what personal characteristics does the institution screen out students from the teacher education programs?
3.3 Student Participation in Program Evaluation and Development
Standard: The program for preparation of teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing has a systematic procedure for securing feedback on the program and the faculty members from students and graduates.
a. What evidence shows that students have a role in the design, development and/or modification of the program?
b. What process is utilized for collecting and utilizing student evaluation of the overall program? Is this done on an annual basis?
c. What process is utilized for individual course evaluation by students and how are these data used by faculty in determining needed modification?
d. Are students provided opportunity and encouragement for participation in professional organizations relevant to deafness, e.g., student membership in Convention of American Instructors of the Deaf, Alexander Graham Bell Association, or Council for Exceptional Children?
e. What feedback has the program received from graduates and students during the last five years and what steps have been taken to respond to this feedback?
3.4 Program Graduation Requirements
Standard: Graduation from a program for the preparation of teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing implies more than the satisfactory completion of a series of academic credit hours.
a. What data other than course grade does the program for the preparation of teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing require for graduation?
Note: Use Form #5, in Attachment III of CED Manual II to respond to this standard.
4.0 Resources and Facilities
The institution provides an environment which supports the teacher education programs it offers. The adequacy of this environment is systematically evaluated in relation to the demands made upon it by curricula, faculty, and students. In the standards, certain elements of this environment are selected for fuller explication without presuming to relegate other elements to insignificance and without assuming that those which are selected are of equal importance. The standards treat the importance of the library, the materials and instructional media center, and physical facilities and other resources in relation to the offering of acceptable teacher education programs.
The library is viewed as the principal educational materials resource and information storage and retrieval center of an institution. As a principal resource for teaching and learning, the library holdings in teacher education are sufficient in number for the students served and pertinent to the types and levels of programs offered. The recommendations of faculty members and national professional organizations are seriously considered in maintaining and building the collection. Library services assure both students and faculty members access to the holdings.
Standard: The library is adequate to support the instruction, research, and services pertinent to each teacher education program.
a. What evidence shows that the library collection includes:
(1) Standard and contemporary holdings in education, psychology, instructional technology, speech and hearing, and the deaf and hard of hearing (books, microfilms, microfiche copies, etc.)?
(2) Standard periodicals in education, psychology, instructional technology, speech and hearing, and the deaf and hard of hearing?
(3) Such additional specialized books, periodicals, and other resources to support each teacher education program?
b. What evidence shows that the institution, in maintaining and improving the quality of its library holdings in teacher education, seriously considers the recommendations of:
(2) Appropriate national professional organizations and learned societies?
(3) A nationally recognized list (or lists) of books and periodicals?
c. What information indicates that both students and faculty have access to, and use of, the library holdings?
d. What evidence shows that institutional support has been given to the acquisition of holdings directly related to the program?
4.2 Materials and Instructional Media Center
Modern media and materials are essential elements in the communications system of contemporary society. For this reason, teachers need to understand the technologies that make such media and materials usable in their teaching and need to possess skills in using them. As a means to assist prospective teachers in developing these understandings and skills, the institution makes available to students and faculty members appropriate teaching-learning materials and instructional media. In maintaining and developing the collection of such materials and media, the institution gives serious consideration to the recommendations of faculty members and appropriate national professional organizations. A program for the preparation of teachers includes the use of teaching-learning materials and instructional media in two important ways: prospective teachers are instructed how to devise and use modern technologies in their teaching. and modern technologies are utilized by the faculty in teaching students.
Standard: A materials and instructional media center for teacher education is maintained either as a part of the library, or as one or more separate units, and is adequate to support the teacher education program.
a. What information shows that the center contains materials and equipment that:
(1) Are utilized at different grade levels in elementary and secondary programs for the deaf and hard of hearing?
(2) Are utilized for teaching and learning in the teacher education curricula offered by the program?
(3) Are representative of the teaching specialties offered by the program?
(4) Reflect recent developments in the teaching of the various subject fields?
(5) Illustrate the wide array of available instructional technologies (such as films, filmstrips, audio-video tapes, transparencies, self-instructional programs and devices, closed circuit TV and sensory aids to communication)?
b. What evidence shows that the institution, in maintaining and improving the quality of the center, seriously considers the recommendations of:
(1) Faculty and staff members?
(2) Appropriate national professional organizations?
c. What information shows that the center is directed by personnel who are knowledgeable about instructional media and materials?
d. What information indicates that the center is available to and used by:
(2) Teacher education faculty members?
4.3 Physical Facilities and Other Resources
Basic teacher education programs draw on the full range of institutional resources to support instruction and research. Assuming that the other aspects of an institution's teacher education program are acceptable, the adequacy of the physical facilities, equipment, and special resources is judged in terms of the operational requirements of the basic program offered. It is assumed that such facilities and resources are readily accessible so that faculty and students may effectively pursue instructional objectives.
Standard: The institution provides physical facilities and other resources essential to the instructional and training activities of the program.
a. What facts indicate that for each basic teacher education program offered, faculty and students have office space, instructional space and other space necessary to carry out their responsibilities including:
(1) Standard and contemporary audiological facilities, materials, and equipment?
(2) Facilities, materials, and equipment for observation and demonstration of audiological, psychological, and educational testing, diagnosis, and training?
b. What information indicates that the institution has given serious consideration to the recommendations of faculty members for improving physical facilities and other support resources?
c. What information indicates that facilities and resources are accessible to faculty and students in the program, including individuals with disabilities?
5.0 Evaluation Review and Planning
In order to assure that a program is current, relevant. and organized to carry out its mission appropriately, a continuous program of evaluation should be in effect. Such a program would focus on:
a. An annual follow-up and evaluation of graduates.
b. The modification of existing programs.
c. Engaging in long-range planning both on the institutional level and in its own departmental framework.
5.1 Evaluation of Graduates
The ultimate criterion for judging a teacher education program is whether it produces competent graduates who enter the profession and perform effectively. An institution committed to the preparation of teachers engages in systematic efforts to evaluate the quality of its graduates and those persons recommended for professional certification. The institution evaluates the teachers it produces at two critical points: When they complete their programs of study, and after they enter the teaching profession.
Any effort to assess the quality of graduates requires that evaluations be made in relation to the objectives sought. Therefore, institutions use the stated objectives of their teacher education programs as a basis for evaluating the teachers they prepare.
Standard: The institution conducts a well-defined plan for evaluating the teachers it prepares.
a. What information shows that the stated objectives for the teacher education programs are used as a basis for evaluating the teachers prepared by the institution?
b. What means are used to collect data about teachers prepared in the various programs--graduates and persons recommended for certification:
(1) At the point when programs of study are completed?
(2) After they enter the teaching profession?
c. What percent of the teachers prepared by the institution during the last two years actually entered the teaching profession?
d. What characteristics of teachers prepared by the institution have been revealed through evaluation of graduates?
NOTE: Use Form #4 in Attachment III of CED Manual II to respond to this standard.
5.2 Use of Evaluation Results to Improve the Program
The institution evaluates the teachers it prepares not only to obtain assessments of their quality, but also to provide information to identify areas in the programs that need strengthening and to suggest new directions for program development. It is assumed in the standard that the results of the evaluations made by the institution are reflected in modifications in the preparation programs.
Standard: The institution uses the evaluation results in the study, development, and improvement of its teacher education programs.
a. What strengths and weaknesses in the teacher education programs are revealed as a result of evaluating teachers prepared by the institution?
b. What does the institution do to insure that the results obtained from evaluating the teachers it prepares are translated into appropriate program modifications?
5.3 Long-Range Planning
Institutional plans for future development provide a basis for making decisions in such matters as increasing or limiting enrollment, introducing new programs, expanding and strengthening existing programs, or entering the field of graduate education. Effective long-range planning presupposes that the institution periodically engages in study and research to ascertain whether its present policies and practices are an effective means for accomplishing its purposes. It is assumed that the institutional community will participate in conducting such studies and in projecting plans for the long-range development of teacher education.
Standard: The institution has plans for the long-range development of teacher education. These plans are part of a design for total institutional development.
a. What evidence indicates that the institution has, or is, engaged in studies and/or research to improve its teacher education programs?
b. What information shows that the faculty for teacher education participates in the formulation of the institution's long-range plans for teacher education?
c. What is the institution's plan for future development of basic teacher education programs and what rationale supports significant changes that are proposed?
Prior to (for graduate students) or parallel with (for undergraduate students) completion of a preparation program in any specialization a student must demonstrate general knowledge in a number of areas.
Special education teachers, more than most teachers, are confronted with a wide variety of situations with which they must deal effectively. The situations, which require them to be "all things" to their students, demand teachers with strong backgrounds of general knowledge combined with a positive, healthy frame of reference regarding the issues of our multicultural, pluralistic society. Such a program must be strong in the natural and behavioral sciences as well as the humanities. Included would be mastery of symbols used for communication in such fields as linguistics, mathematics, language, logic, and information theory.
Further these prerequisites may be more specifically translated into general knowledge in the areas of:
o Child growth and development, learning theory, and general psychology
o The development, structure, and function of social institutions, including the interaction and interrelationship of these groups in our society. This would include a knowledge of the organization and administration of our school systems and of the historical and philosophical parameters of the process of teaching and learning
o Current instructional procedures in general education
o General instructional procedures for educating handicapped and multihandicapped children.
No less than one-third of a four-year curriculum should be devoted to the studies of a general nature. The particular needs and interest of an individual student provide direction for particular course configuration or depth of study in a specific area of general education.
Teacher Preparation - General
Increasingly, it is becoming clear that teachers in the field of special education need to have both the broad general education background described above but also a broad professional preparation program for the field of teaching. Accordingly, it is necessary for the special education teacher to have prerequisite knowledge in teaching the non-handicapped child prior to, or concurrently with, the study of a particular area of emphasis in the field of special education. Teachers then must have not only knowledge of subject matter but the knowledge and skill in presenting it to a variety of students.
Prior to, or upon completion, of a program in education of the deaf and hard of hearing, students also should have completed the course work generally required for a regular state teaching credential in early childhood, elementary, or secondary education. This course work should be in the intended area of specialization in education of the deaf and hard of hearing. Programs seeking Council on Education of the Deaf approval must provide documentation relative to the process utilized to ensure that each of the prerequisite requirements described above are met.
Knowledge and Skills
Prerequisite knowledge and skills are addressed by the ACEC Common Core of Knowledge and Skills Essential for All Beginning Special Education Teachers.@ (See Form #8 in Attachment III of CED Manual II.) These general skills should be addressed by teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students, either as prerequisites or as part of their specialized preparation.