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Carolina Picture Vocabulary Test for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children
(CPVT) (1985)
Thomas L. Layton and David W. Holmes

The Carolina Picture Vocabulary Test is a norm-referenced, validated, receptive sign vocabulary test for children between the ages of 4 and 11.5 who are deaf or hard of hearing. The population (N=767) used in the standardization research was based on a nationwide sample of children who use manual signs as their primary means of communication. Stratification of the sample was based on geographic region, educational facility, parental occupation, sex, race, age, grade, etiology, age of onset of hearing impairment, number of years of signing, IQ, and threshold of hearing loss in the better ear. The CPTV consists of 130 items with suggested basal and ceiling levels. 10-15 minutes are required to administer the test. Scale scores, percentile ranks, and age equivalency scores are provided.

Complete CPVT Kit includes Examiner's Manual, Picture Book, and 50 Record Forms, all in a sturdy storage box.

Cat. No.     PE2750            complete test kit                                                                       $114.00

Test of Early Reading Ability - Deaf or Hard of Hearing (TERA-D/HH)
D. Kim Reid, Wayne P. Hresko, Donald D. Hammill, Susan Wiltshire

This is the only individually administered test of reading designed for children with moderate to profound sensory hearing loss (i.e. ranging from 41 to beyond 91 decibels, corrected). TERA-D/HH is also the only individually administered reading test designed for children younger than age 8 who are deaf or hard of hearing. It has equivalent forms and taps the child's ability to construct meaning, knowledge of the alphabet and its functions, and awareness of print conventions. Results are reported as standard scores (M=100; SD=15), percentile rankings, and normal curve equivalents. TERA-D/HH was standardized on a national sample of more than 1,000 students who were deaf or hard of hearing from 20 states. Normative data are given for every 6 month interval from 3-0 through 13-11. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability are reported in the manual. In all instances, coefficients approach or exceed .90. Validity coefficients for TERA-D/HH with other reading, language, intelligence, and achievements tests frequently used with students who are deaf or hard of hearing also are reported in the manual.

Complete TERA-D/HH Kit includes Examiner's Manual, Picture Book, and 25 Form A and 25 Form B Profile/Examiner Record Forms, all in a sturdy storage box.

Cat. No.     PE5130            complete test kit                                                                       $159.00

Test of Reading Comprehension (TORC-3)
A Method for Assessing the Understanding of Written Language
3rd Edition (1995)
Virginia L. Brown, Donald D. Hammill, J. Lee Wiederholt

TORC-3 is a current revision of the TORC, originally published in 1978 and revised in 1986. A major improvement in the test is the provision of all new normative data. The information on this sample of students is provided by geographic region, gender, residence, race, ethnicity, and disabling condition stratified by age and keyed to the 1990 census data. Criterion-related and content validity has been updated and expanded, and test-retest reliability has been reworked to account for age effects. Studies also have been added showing the absence of gender and racial bias.

TORC-3 represents the operationalization of a constructivist orientation that focuses on holistic, cognitive, and linguistic aspects of reading. The test comprises eight subtests grouped under the General Reading Comprehension Core [which yields a Reading Comprehension Quotient that can be compared to measures of abstract thinking, oral language abilities, and achievement] and Diagnostic Supplements.

The General Reading Comprehension Core includes:

  1. General Vocabulary - measures the reader's understanding of sets of vocabulary items that are all related to the same general concept.
  2. Syntactic Similarities - measures the reader's understanding of meaningfully similar but syntactically different sentence structures.
  3. Paragraph Reading - measures the reader's ability to answer questions related to story-like paragraphs.
  4. Sentence Sequencing - measures the ability to build relationships among sentences, both to each other and to a reader-created whole.
The 4 subtests also are used in combination to arrive at the student's general reading comprehension score, with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15.

Four Diagnostic Supplements subtests are used to obtain a more comprehensive evaluation of relative strengths and weaknesses among various kinds of comprehension abilities. Three of the subtests are measures of content area vocabulary in Mathematics, Social Studies and Science.

Each subtest measures the reader's understanding of sets of vocabulary items that are all related to the same concept. Subtest 8, Reading the Directions of Schoolwork, measures the student's understanding of written directions commonly found in schoolwork.

Standard scores are provided for each subtest. TORC-3 was standardized on 1962 students from 19 states. Data is provided supporting test-retest and internal consistency reliability.

Complete TORC-3 Kit includes Examiner's Manual, 50 Answer Sheet and Subtest 8 Forms, 50 Profile/Examiner Record Forms, and 10 Student Booklets, all in a sturdy storage box.

Cat. No.     PE6840            complete test kit                                                                      $139.00

Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (TONI-3)
A Language-Free Measure of Cognitive Ability

3rd Edition (1997)
Linda Brown, Rita J. Sherbenou, Susan K. Johnsen

TONI-3 is a major revision of the popular Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, a norm-referenced measure of intelligence, aptitude, abstract reasoning, and problem solving. It is language-free, requiring no reading, writing, speaking, or listening by the subject. This and the abstract-figural content of test items (no words, numbers, or familiar pictures or symbols) reduce the cultural loading of the test due to instruction, training, or prior information or exposure. It is also largely motor-free, requiring only a point, nod, or symbolic gesture to indicate response choices.

TONI-3 is appropriate for subjects 5 through 85 years of age. The test
manual provides detailed directions for administering, scoring and interpreting the test. Instructions are pantomimed and responses are conveyed by pointing or making some other meaningful gesture. The drawings in the Picture Book have been improved substantially in this revision. The entire test administration requires about 15-20 minutes.

Two equivalent forms of TONI-3 make it useful for pre/post testing or periodic reevaluation. Each form contains 50 items arranged in easy to difficult order. The content of each is a set of abstract-figural drawings that form a novel problem or puzzle to be solved. A wide variety of problem solving skills must be applied to arrive at the correct response. Easier items are solved on the basis of simple matching or apprehending analogies, whereas more difficult items require much more complex solutions comprising multiple interrelated and properly sequenced strategies. Raw scores are converted to percentile ranks and to deviation quotients with a M=100 and SD=15 points.

TONI-3 was normed on a large sample of over 3,000 subjects tested in 1995/96 whose demographic characteristics match those of the United States according to the 1990 census, rev 1995. The potential bias was found to be insignificant on the basis of age, gender, race, ethnic group, geographic location and community size, principal language spoken in the home, and socioeconomic status.

Almost 20 years of research establishing the test's reliability and validity are reported in the manual. The reliability research analyzes the test's content reliability and its reliability over time. The validity data documents the test's relationship to other measures of intelligence, its relationship to measures of achievement and personality, its efficiency in discriminating groups appropriately, its factor structure, and other important estimates of test validity. Reliability and validity were studied with subjects believed to be intellectually normal and also with subjects who present a variety of cognitive, linguistic, and sensory exceptionalties, including deafness.

Complete TONI-3 Kit includes Examiner's Manual, Picture Book, Forms A and B Answer Booklets and 50 Record Forms, all in a sturdy storage box.

Cat. No.     PE8465            complete test kit                                                                       $219.00

Rhode Island Test of Language Structure (RITLS)
Elizabeth Engen and Trygg Engen

The RITLS provides a measure of English language development and assessment data. It has sufficient depth and range to allow for educational planning. It is designed primarily for use with children who are deaf or hard of hearing. RITLS focuses on syntax, unlike other tests that test morphology. Administration time is 30 minutes. RITLS is designed for persons ages 3 to 20 with hearing loss and ages 3 to 6 without hearing loss. Norms were developed from 513 children with hearing loss and 283 without. Reliability and validity are high. Tested items comprise 20 sentence types, both simple and complex.

Complete RITLS Kit includes:
Text Booklet, 10 Response Sheets/10 Analysis Sheets, and Manual

Cat. No.     PE0620            complete test kit                                                                       $119.00