What is AD(H)D?
Kelly, D., Forney, J., Parker-Fisher, S., & Jones, M. (1993). The challenge of attention deficit disorder in children who are deaf or hard of hearing. American Annals of the Deaf, 138 (4), 343-348.
Sacks, B. (1999). Attention-deficit disorders in preschool children. [Online]. Available: http://members.aol.com/addcenter/preschoo.htm
(1999). Behavior and emotions:
Understanding AD/HD. [Online]. Available:
Synthesis of information
Attention deficit disorder (ADD) is characterized by "inattentiveness,
distractibility and impulsivity" according to Kelly, Forney, Parker-Fisher
and Jones (1993). Children with this disorder lose things easily,
make careless mistakes, do not pay attention to detail and are easily distracted
by noises and visual stimulation. ADHD is attention deficit disorder
with hyperactivity. Often children with this disorder are unable
to sit still, are running or squirming and feel restless. They are
described as having "inappropriate levels of activity" (Web Site: "Understanding
AD/HD"). Children with AD/HD understand what they are supposed to
do, but often can't do it because they are unable to focus or become distracted.
Infants who are "at risk" for developing ADD are described as "difficult"
babies. According to Bracha Sacks (1999), Psy.D. they may "sleep
very little, cry a lot, and are sensitive to changes in the environment"
(Web Site: "Attention-Deficit Disorders in Preschool Children").
She also states that they may take a long time to warm up to new situations,
wanting to always sleep in the same place, eat the same foods and play
with the same toys. AD/HD is usually not diagnosed until these symptoms
have been consistent in a child for six months to one year and "the symptoms
must appear before age 7" (Web Site: "Understanding AD/HD").
AD/HD is becoming a very common disorder among school children.
We are seeing more and more children medicated to treat this disorder.
In researching this topic I found that not all symptoms may be present
in one child, they may vary from child to child. There are also many
ways to manage this disorder if it is determined that medication is not
the best treatment. I did not realize that it was possible to "predict"
whether or not an infant would develop ADD, but it is important to understand
that many other factors may cause these characteristics in infants and
not to jump to a conclusion that the child has ADD. I was surprised
at how much information is available about ADD.
Loechler, K. (1999). Frequently asked questions about ADHD and the answers from the internet. The Council For Exceptional Children: Teaching Exceptional Children, 31, (6), 28-31.
Taylor, J. (1994). Helping
your hyperactive/attention deficit child. (Rev. 2nd ed.). California:
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