Question Three:

"Let’s play—you and me!"

or do we play differently?


Antia, S. (1985) Social integration of hearing impaired children: Fact or fiction? Volta Review, Oct/Nov., 279-289.

Antia, S. and Kreimeyer, K. (1996). Social interaction and acceptance of deaf and hard-of-hearing children and their
    peers: A comparison of social-skills and familiarity-based interventions. Volta Review, 98, 157-180.

Esposito, B. and Koorland, M. (1989). Play behavior of hearing impaired children: Integrated and segregated
    settings. Exceptional Children, 55, 412-419.

McCauley, R., Bruininks, R., and Kennedy, P. (1976). Behavioral interactions of hearing impaired children in
    regular classrooms. Journal of Special Education, 10, 275-283.

Summary of findings:


The development of play for hearing impaired children and hearing children appears to have more similarities than differences. Play development for both groups goes through similar stages, however hearing impaired children, due to the communication delay, may progress at a slower rate. This may imply that their play interactions may appear less mature than their hearing peers. These differences may lead hearing impaired children to be less comfortable with unfamiliar peers, however, relying on the teacher in unfamiliar situations. It appears that familiarity can improve the social interaction of hearing impaired children; thus it seems appropriate to offer them many situations for play with stable partners during their early years. Offering many opportunities for participation with stable, small groups may encourage growth in a variety of play activities. It also may be beneficial for the teacher/parent to reduce his/her interaction with the children during free play to encourage child-child interaction rather than adult-child interactions (See question #7).

Additional references:

Lederberg, A., Ryan, H., and Robbins, B. (1986) Peer interaction in young deaf children: The effect of
    partner hearing status and familiarity. American Psychological Association, 22, 691-700.

Kaplan, B. and McHale, F. (1980). Communication and play behaviors of a deaf preschooler and his
    younger brother. Volta Review, December, 476-485.

Higgenbotham, D. and Baker, B. (1981). Social participation and cognitive play differences in hearing
    -impaired and normally hearing preschoolers. Volta Review, April, 135-149.

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