Music & Deafness Page

The Mainstreaming of Children Who Are Deaf Into Public School Music Programs

Frisque, J., Niebur, L., & Humphreys, J. T. (1994). Music mainstreaming: Practices in Arizona. Journal of Research in Music Education, 42(2), 94-104.

In the results of this survey of 107 music educators in Arizona, 32% reported that they were teaching students with hearing impairments who were mainstreamed into their music classes. Other issues of mainstreaming examined by this survey include: music teacher preparation to teach students who have disabilities, the relative importance of musical and nonmusical goals, and music teacher perception of the success of mainstreaming.


Darrow, A. A., & Gfeller, K. (1991). A study of public school music programs mainstreaming hearing impaired students. Journal of Music Therapy, 28(1), 23-29.

The results of a survey of 96 deaf education programs reported that 52% of their students attend regular music classes, while 23% of their students receive no music instruction at all. Only 26% of the schools offering music instruction had self-contained music classes for their students who have hearing impairments. Issues of teacher preparation and obstructions to successful music instruction were also examined.


Shehan, P. K. (1977). A brief study of music education for exceptional children in Ohio. Contributions to Music Education,5, 47-53.

In studying the responses to her survey from 32 school districts in Ohio, Shehan found that 18.75% of them mainstream children who have hearing impairments into their music classes while 9.37% provide special music classes for these students.