Music & Deafness Page

Methods Used in Music Instruction of Children who are Deaf

Darrow, A. A. (1992). The effect of vibrotactile stimuli via the SOMATRON (tm) on the identification of pitch change by hearing impaired children. Journal of Music Therapy, 29(2), 103-112.

Ten out 17 children who had severe and profound hearing loss were able to identify change in pitch more accurately when the sounds were supplemented with vibrotactile stimulation.


Darrow, A. A. (1990). The effect of frequency adjustment on the vocal reproduction accuracy of hearing impaired children. The Journal of Music Therapy, 27(1), 24-33.

Eight students with severe to profound hearing loss were found to reproduce pitches more accurately when the graphic equalizer of the sound system on which the stimulus pitches were played was adjusted to complement their audiological response curve, than when a flat frequency adjustment was used.


Darrow, A. A., & Goll, H. (1989). The effect of vibrotactile stimuli via the SOMATRON (tm) on the identification of rhythmic concepts by hearing impaired children. Journal of Music Therapy, 26(3), 115-124.

Twenty-nine students who had severe to profound hearing losses were found to be better at identifying change in rhythm when the auditory stimulus was supplemented with vibrotactile stimulation.


Darrow, A. A. (1987). The art of sign and song. Music Educators Journal, 74(1), 32-35.

The use of signed songs is examined. The issues discussed include: choosing a sign language system, accuracy in sign language translation, reflection of volume, pitch and mood in sign language, and synchronization of sign language. The benefits of song-signing are seen as improvement in language learning and improvement in communication between children who are deaf and their nondisabled peers.


Birkenshaw, L. (1965). Teaching music to deaf children. Volta Review, 67(5), 352-358, 387.

In this description of an Orff-based music program at a school for the deaf which used the oral method, the goal of music instruction is seen to be speech development. Specific techniques and activities for music instruction are described.


Edwards, E. M. (1974). Music Education for the Deaf. South Waterford, ME: Merriam-Eddy Company.

After tracing the history of music education for children who are deaf, Edwards discusses a rationale for it. A curriculum for the general music education of children who are deaf is presented with goals, objectives, and suggested classroom activities.