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1997 Conference Presentation Summaries

1997 Conference Presentation Summaries

What Do Children Need from Today's Teachers?
Historical Influences and Future Trends in the Teaching of Reading to Children who are Deaf
Using Cases and Case Methods in Teacher Preparation in Deafness
Predicting Positive Service Use: Minority Parents of Deaf Children
Distance Learning Through Telelinking
Model of Formal Collaboration Between Two State University: Meeting the Challenge of the CEC/CED Standards
Teachers and Technology: Setting Higher Expectations
A Framework for Exploring Students' Personal Cultures: A Tool for Use in IEP Development
Multicultural Education Applications for Teachers of the Deaf: Creating Culturally Responsible Curriculum
Model for Preservice Teacher Training: What we have learned and what we need to learn
Prospective Teachers: What are they saying about their philosophy of education
Constructivist Teaching
Program Standards and Program Content: The Education of the Deaf, Teacher Training Programs, and Deaf Input
Collaborative Opportunities Through Internet Technologies: Identification, Design & Implementation
Teacher Trainees' Classroom Communication Preference
Dialogue Journal Writing: Implications for Teacher Education
Dialogic Interaction: The Role of Computer-Mediated Communication in the Acquisition of Written English
The Development of Informal Assessment/Evaluation Skills through Classroom Observations
Parents as Partners: Preparing Deaf Children for BiBi Programs
Results of a National Survey of Reading Instruction for Deaf Students
Test-Taking Skills of Deaf Students: A Missing Component of the Curriculum
Visual Activities Using the Internet: Enhancing Experiential Learning, Concept Development, and Literacy
Teacher Morale, Student Self Concept and Parental Adjustment: A National Study
Value, Ethics and Dispositions to Teacher Preparation
Teacher Subject Matter Competencies in Mathematics: Where do we go from here?
Parental Involvement: Deaf Versus Hearing Children
Speech-Language Pathologist or Teacher of the Deaf/Hard of Hearing: Who is more qualified to serve populations with hearing loss?
Teaming Up to Create Community for Kids
Preparation of Teachers of Deaf Students through University and School Partnerships: A Collaborative Journey
The Relationship Between ASL Skill and English Literacy
T-Unit Analysis: A Usable Assessment Tool of English for the Classroom
The Development of Informal Assessment/Evaluation Skills through Classroom Observations

What Do Children Need From Today's Teacher?
Lynann Barbero, Tommie Brasel, Linda McDowell & Rosemary Gallegos

The complexity of teaching deaf and hard of hearing children is well recognized; a teacher makes more than 3,000 nontrivial decisions daily. The classroom of today is filled with complex problems that require complex solutions.

College and university training programs should develop their programs around some broad basic questions: "What does an effective teacher know?" "What does an accomplished teacher do in the performance of his/her duties?" Every course that is determined to be necessary in developing a future teacher's knowledge base and consequent skill level should have clearly defined outcomes that address these two broad questions.

During a panel discussion, elements of teacher training program which require focused attention were addressed as well as a variety of program structures which enhance training program's capabilities of preparing teachers for today's and tomorrow's classrooms. These included:

Historical Influences and Future Trends in the Teaching of Reading to Children Who are Deaf
Sandra K. Bowen

This presentation focused on reading theories that have guided reading instruction for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. Specifically, educational trends in reading and deafness were described as they have been influenced by reading theories and in relationship to specific events, conventions, or procedures in the education of students who are deaf or hard of hearing. Understanding the past provides a window for the future. A concise overview of reading theories and methods was provided as they relate to the following issues:
  1. legislation that has affected deaf education, including special education and bilingual education;
  2. modes of communication, including the use of oral language versus sign language, and American Sign Language versus English based sign systems;
  3. residential school settings versus other placements, including mainstream and public school settings; and
  4. the relationship between "current trends" in teaching reading and the parallel adoption or adaptation of these trends in educating deaf students.

Using Cases and Case Methods in Teacher Preparation in Deafness
Mary V. Compton & Susan Shroyer

Case studies have long been utilized in law, business, and medical education pedagogy to facilitate students' problem solving abilities and to provide authentic situations in which emerging professionals can apply and synthesize their learnings. Numerous cases have been developed for students who are preparing to teach students of various ages and academic levels; however, only one case addresses topics of concern relative to deafness. This paucity of cases in deafness could be alleviated by the creation of cases that can be utilized in courses designed to prepare teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students.

This presentation shared theoretical perspectives and practical strategies for using decision-based cases in preparing teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students. The presenters outlined the processes through which they developed two unpublished cases for use with a class of undergraduate prospective teachers and described how they facilitated the students' discussions of the cases. Guidelines for developing cases were delineated so that participants could develop their own cases. Participants discussed critical incidents in teaching deaf and hard of hearing students that could be expanded into cases.

Predicting Positive Service Use: Minority Parents of Deaf Children
Carolyn Corbet & Thomas N. Kluwin

Minority parents are less likely to utilize traditional parent education services offered through schools for the deaf and are less likely to participate in the IEP process.

This presentation described a study of more culturally appropriate services for minority parents of deaf children. The theoretical framework for the study addressed three areas of mismatch between the value systems of those who design family services and traditionally underserved families: social support systems and resources, family cohesion, and family decision-making.

Subjects were 100 White, African-American, or Hispanic parents of moderately to profoundly deaf children (ages 2-14), who were identified by their school systems as difficult to serve. Preliminary findings of phone and face-to-face interviews indicated that parent educational level has a direct relationship to: response to the IEP process, preference for face-to-face teacher contact vs. other methods for keeping in touch with the schools, and response to written materials. There is also a relationship between social support, family cohesion, and family decision-making as they relate to help-seeking behaviors in these families. Findings were summarized and presenters provided time for discussion and questions.

Distance Learning Through Telelinking
Karen Dilka & Deborah Haydon

Many teacher preparation programs in the field of deafness encompass a very large geographical service area. Program faculty encounter programs in their attempt to provide quality training to students who are located so far from campus. In an effort to accommodate these prospective teachers and "reach out" to other individuals, different forms of technology are currently being used.

Interactive TV is a system that transmits live voice and video via high speed digital telephone lines to regional classroom sites. This communication channel is a vehicle for the delivery of course work statewide. It allows students to participate in essentially the same way they normally would if they were enrolled in a class on campus. Instructors can view more than one site at a time and each site has the capability of viewing other sites as well as being viewed themselves, permitting an exchange of group information and ideas.

Discussion of the application of this technology, specific teaching strategies, the integration of other media, operation of equipment and the advantages/disadvantages of using interactive TV were included in this presentation. A demonstration video of an authentic course and how it is conducted on interactive TV was shown.

Model of Formal Collaboration Between Two State Universities: Meeting the Challenge of the CEC/CED Standards
Susan Easterbrooks & Joan Laughton

The State of Georgia is in the process of converting its entire university system to semesters by the academic year 1998-99, Within the context of this change, the two universities in the state which have programs in education of students who are deaf/hard of hearing have developed a mutually agreed upon plan to share core course work. The purpose of the shared course work is to allow students in both programs to receive the benefit of the expertise of each program's faculty member. Six courses will be shared, three each taught by the two professors, via distance learning and by locating courses at a shared site. Each program seeks its own specialization within the CED guidelines to maintain its separate identity and to take advantage of the focus of the different universities.

The presenter discussed the process engaged in to bring the two universities to a discussion, the procedures for developing the shared courses, benefits of the model, and features which are necessary to be in place for such a program to be viable.

Teachers and Technology: Setting Higher Expectations
Carla Fenner & Mike Romero

Teacher training programs need to be on the cutting edge of technology and must do a better job of preparing teachers in this field. Ideally, the integration of technology should occur throughout all methods classes as a task rather than taught on its own, out of context, with the exception of a few basic courses in technology that should be offered to students to provide a base on which to build. An introduction to computers should provide basic information on how computers operate. This course should include the basics of word processing, spread sheets and data bases. Minimal troubleshooting should also be included.

There are three additional areas in which teachers should receive training:
  1. Multimedia - (CD Rom, laser disks, scanners, digital cameras, and camcorders)
  2. Telecommunications - (Internet, E-mail, World Wide Web, and searching for information on-line)
  3. Utilities - (student information management programs for report cards, attendance, transcripts, IEPs and portfolios)

A Framework for Exploring Students' Personal Cultures: A Tool for Use in IEP Development
Ruth Fletcher & Doris Paez

Deaf/HH students attending school in the United States belong to or are influenced by at least four cultural groups: (1) family, (2) neighborhood, (3) surrounding community, and (4) school. However, because family is the primary venue of a child's life experiences, professionals tend to identify the child's culture as simply reflecting that of the family's, and educators neglect to analyze the contribution of the other three cultural influences. To understand the world of each student requires that we, as educators, explore the child's uniqueness or personal culture.

This session presented a framework for exploring the personal culture of deaf or hard-of-hearing students. This framework guides analysis of characteristics of the student as well as those of each of the influencing cultural groups (family, neighborhood, surrounding community, and school) across the dimensions of ethnicity and suggests that variables must be identified which represent; (a) cultural values, attitudes, and behaviors; (b) subjective sense of group membership; (c) experiences associated with minority status; and (d) transforming life events. The framework is designed for use by school personnel, particularly teachers, as a mechanism for IEP/IFSP development and curricular planning.

Multicultural Education Applications for Teachers of the Deaf: Creating Culturally Responsible Curriculum
Barbara Gerner de García

This presentation was based on an OSERS funded project that is working with inservice teachers of the deaf who are being trained to become leaders for multicultural school reform in schools and programs for deaf and hard of hearing students. Last summer the teachers attended a 45-hour institute on multicultural curriculum development. The institute provided the teachers with a framework for constructivist versus traditional curriculum, materials evaluation, and identifying resources. During the 1996-97 school year, 22 teachers (working in teams of two and in some cases three) are developing multicultural education units for their classrooms. In some cases they are collaborating with their teacher partner in their school, and in other cases they are collaborating with other teachers in the project who are on the other side of the country. The session included an overview of the training provided the teachers on curriculum, and examples of their applications during the current school year. Implications for preservice as well as inservice teacher education were addressed.

Model for Preservice Teacher Training: What we have learned and what we need to learn
Azar Hadadian & Mary Alice Moon

Practicum settings often fail to provide preservice teachers with the diversity of Deaf students as well as exposure to Deaf culture, Deaf/hearing teachers, and ASL. In response to this need Ball State University established a joint program with Indiana Deaf School (ISD) to provide Deaf education students with a year long residential field experience, working with Deaf children and Deaf/hearing educators of the Deaf.

The Participant Program, which does not take the place of student teaching, enables students to work closely with master teachers of the Deaf, develop fluency in ASL, and to learn the fine nuances of Deaf culture. Students rotate through all grade levels and participate in events in the evening such as class parties, dorm night out, and sporting events. While at ISD, students complete 15-18 semester hours of regular university course work, taught at ISD by Ball State faculty and adjunct instructors. An advisory committee consisting of ISD and BSU faculty and administrators monitor the program, and a BSU faculty member regularly visits students at least once a week.

This presentation provided the audience with data and in depth discussion of the participant program as a national model, sharing experiences and stumbling blocks faced.

Prospective Teachers: What are they saying about their philosophy of education!
Azar Hadadian & Joan Studnicky

One measure which can provide some insight for the overall training of preservice teachers is to examine students' philosophies of education following the completion of all their course work. Current issues in the field of education in general and Deaf education in particular (e.g. cultural diversity, literacy, communication/language, empowerment, content knowledge, parent involvement and Deaf culture) could be used as criteria to examine their philosophy of education.

This presentation provided data (n=60) on philosophies of education from Deaf education majors gathered as part of the application for student teaching. The qualitative data collected from student teachers' written philosophies were stratified into different domains. These data were compared to the current trends in the field of regular education and Deaf education in order to see what they reflected. Recommendations were made on how we can use these indicators as measures for self-study and to make programmatical changes.

Constructivist Teaching
Larry Hawkins, Sharon Baker &Judy Brawner

According to Piaget, children construct their knowledge through their own creation of relationships, and children may build knowledge by inventing a series of "wrong ideas." His constructivist theory of how children develop knowledge is opposite to those of who believe that knowledge is acquired by the individual from the outside. This "round-table" discussion examined teaching from the constructivist perspective. Teaching is not telling; learning is not seen as an accumulation of facts to be memorized. A teacher's job is more of a facilitator to foster whatever helps the constructive process. Children are not like plants that possibly absorb nutrients. Each child constructs his or her own knowledge from within. Teachers can do much to promote or hinder children's cognitive development. The aim of education should not be to produce conformists who can recite "right" answers, but to turn out individuals who are autonomous, capable of thinking critically for themselves and of creating new knowledge, social organizations, and moral values.

According to Constance Kamii, universities are guilty of teaching too many methods courses without emphasizing the scientific "why." According to Fosnot, teachers should be educated as professionals, not just clones to blindly follow "teacher-proof" materials or to become skilled technicians.

Program Standards and Program Content: The Education of the Deaf, Teacher Training Programs, and Deaf Input
Robert J. Hoffmeister & Amy Chizk

Historically, education programs training people to acquire educational practices to be used with deaf children covered all levels of teaching, K-12. In this day of instant information and superhighway accessibility can we continue to train teachers who have the knowledge base to teach at all levels in the education system? This presentation examined a selected number of programs to obtain an idea of what information is currently needed in the practice of teacher education and to determine from these programs what the field feels meets the necessary requirements to produce high quality teachers of the Deaf. Critical to the discussion was the determination of topics and type of course work that programs used to address these issues:
  1. What knowledge base is necessary to produce a highly qualified teacher of the Deaf?
  2. What accreditation standards are necessary to produce a highly qualified teacher of the Deaf?
  3. How do CED standards fit into the accreditation process in terms of enforcement, mentoring, and leadership?

Issues discussed pertained to what is presently available, the percentage of course work within the program, and changes in the education of the Deaf. Current changes in the field were described, such as the introduction of ASL in classrooms and schools for the Deaf, the full inclusion movement, the use of interpreters in the classroom, and what these mean in terms of learning about Deaf culture, Deaf literature, and Deaf history. The old and proposed CED standards were reviewed for their match with the programs, and the standards were evaluated in the context of current educational practice.

Collaborative Opportunities Through Internet Technologies: Identification, Design & Implementation
Harold A. Johnson, David Mercaldo & Alan Marvelli

Isolation and lack of resources, combined with the inherent complexities of education, have resulted in a consistent failure of Deaf Education to effectively educate its students. This discussion group addressed this failure through an outline of Internet-based, collaborative efforts that can/should be carried out within the field of Deaf Education. The basic goal of the discussion was to foster the establishment of an Internet based, collaborative network of the parents, teachers, faculty and preservice teachers who work within the field of Deaf Education. The primary focus of this network will be the identification, description and sharing of instructional strategies and curriculum materials found to be effective with d/hh students. A secondary focus of the network will be to encourage collaborative activities to expand learning opportunities for d/hh students, their parents, teachers, faculty and preservice teachers. Finally, of equal importance is the integration of Internet technologies and resources into the education of d/hh students and the initial/ongoing professional development and support of the students parents, teachers, faculty and preservice teachers.

Teacher Trainees' Classroom Communication Preferences
Thomas W. Jones

Deaf, hard-of-hearing, and hearing students in a Master's-level teacher preparation program in deaf education were surveyed to ascertain their preferences for providing and receiving information to and from their instructors and classmates in graduate courses. The students were asked to choose from six options:
  1. voice-off signing; no interpreter
  2. voice-off signing; voice interpreter
  3. simcom; no interpreter
  4. simcom; parallel sign language interpreter
  5. spoken English; sign language interpreter
  6. spoken English; no interpreter

Conclusions were drawn from both a statistical summary of the respondents' indicated preferences, and an analysis of their narrative comments. The respondents overwhelmingly indicated a preference for voice-off signing without an interpreter for all classroom interactions, with no difference between the preferences of deaf and hearing students, and first- and second-year students. Other findings included the following:

Dialogue Journal Writing: Implications for Teacher Education
Deborah A. Karres

This round table presentation shared results of research from a case study of dialogue journal writing in two classrooms for deaf and hard of hearing students. Implications which influence teacher educators, including recommendations for analyzing written language, for teacher-modeling, and setting individual student's goals were discussed. Dialogue journals simulate conditions of spoken language acquisition in which the participants interact and guide each other according to topic and content. Data from the case study reflect how aspects of communicative competence, or elements of language which achieve intention and purpose, are influenced by teacher goals.

Although dialogue journal writing use is based on the theory that adult language users contribute to the language acquisition process through modeling and interaction, few researchers understand how language is learned through written communication. Underlying the round table discussion was the research question: "How does the teacher's goal for using dialogue journal writing as a teaching method influence the students' writing?"

Dialogic Interaction: The Role of Computer-Mediated Communication in the Acquisition of Written English
Karen Kimmel, Tammy Burt, Roxanna Foster, Jason Hyde, Darlene Klein, Jane McCall & Dana Savarda

This qualitative study examined the dialogic, electronic mail interactions among 13 undergraduate students enrolled in Written Communication I at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf in New York and six hearing, graduate students enrolled in a Deaf Studies Program at Bowling Green State University in Ohio. This CMC approach is a viable option for the deaf learner because it makes writing a sociocultural necessity. This course offers the benefits of time and place independent learning. The presenters shared the theoretical foundation for their study and described the student participants and the mechanics of setting up e-mail correspondence. Further, they shared samples of students' interactions (ways of offering feedback, excerpts from reflective journals, and discussions about revisions) and discussed the growth of students' critical thinking, writing abilities, and understanding of the language learning process.

The Development of Informal Assessment/Evaluation Skills through Classroom Observations
Kathryn H. Kreimeyer, L. Davis, K. Herron, G. Jabbour, J. Loga, L. Warns, & J. Zhao

This session presented an overview of the University of Arizona's Observation and Participation course. Through lectures, handouts and guided instruction, students work in teams to explore the process of assessment/data collection by: generating a question for investigation, determining an appropriate data collection strategy, recording the data, summarizing the obtained data to address the selected question, computing interobserver reliability, identifying procedural errors and strategies for correction, and finally sharing the entire procedure with classmates. Instruction begins in the classroom, then moves into local school programs and is applied during live observations in classrooms. The question formulating and data collecting strategies acquired during this course are then directly applied to the process of assessment and evaluation required of students during their subsequent internship placements. Students find the process most useful as they assess children's present level of performance to determine appropriate instructional objectives and develop procedures to monitor progress on the selected objectives.

Parents as Partners: Preparing Deaf Children for BiBi Programs
Carol J. LaSasso & Melanie Metzger

The purpose of this presentation was to support the concept of bilingual or multilingual education for deaf students and to propose that the deaf child's first language be the language program, and changes in the education of the Deaf. Current changes in the field were described, such as the introduction of ASL in classrooms and schools for the Deaf, the full inclusion movement, the use of interpreters in the classroom, and what these mean in terms of learning about Deaf culture, Deaf literature, and Deaf history. The old and proposed CED standards were reviewed for their match with the programs, and the standards were evaluated in the context of current educational practice.

Results of a National Survey of Reading Instruction for Deaf Students
Carol J. LaSasso & Robert T. Mobley

This study updated and extended findings from two earlier surveys of Instructional practices and materials used to develop deaf students' reading and writing abilities in the United States. Data were reported from 267 Instructional programs representing more than 13,000 deaf and hard of hearing students. Results indicate that basal readers and language experience activities continue to be used extensively with deaf students. In addition, almost four-fiths of programs reported using a whole language framework for reading instruction, with almost one-third of the programs citing While Language as the primary framework for instruction for deaf and hard of hearing children between 9-12 years of age. The Reading Milestones series was reported as being used by 30% of the programs participating in the survey; three times as much as the second most frequently cited basal reader. Although a high level of satisfaction with the series was reported, a lower level of satisfaction with specific characteristics of the series was found.

Test-Taking Skills of Deaf Students: A Missing Component of Curriculum
Carol J. LaSasso

Despite a substantial body of literature documenting differences in test-taking skills between deaf and hearing readers, especially on comprehension tasks involving questions, many parents and teachers view a deaf child's performance on tests or other written tasks to be a direct reflection of the child's comprehension, including reading comprehension.

This presentation: (1) reviewed the literature in test-taking abilities of deaf students, (2) described the importance of test taking skills for deaf students, (3) discussed the limitations of inferring reading process from what the child produces, (4) proposed that programs serving deaf students include a formal test-taking component in the curriculum, (5) suggests specific instructional strategies for improving deaf students test -taking skills, and (6) discussed the role of tests in portfolio assessment. A lecture format was utilized with slides demonstrating differences between deaf and hearing students on a variety of reading comprehension tasks.

Visual Activities Using the Internet: Enhancing Experiential Learning, Concept Developed, and Literacy
Pamela Luft

This poster session presented lessons and activities that address the development and expansion of student concepts and literacy skills via the Internet. Examples demonstrated how concept development can be enhanced by (1) using topical searches to expand students' knowledge base, (2) creating or expanding information presented as graphic organizers (e.g. semantic webs and conceptual maps), and (3) accessing video encyclopedias or resources that provide footage of real-world events and their impact on our lives. English literacy skills are supported by (1)text that includes pictorial, graphic, or video footage, (2) student presentations or explanations using both textual and visual information, (3) written communication in participating in bulletin boards, e-mail, and collaborative projects with other classes or Internet users, and (4) communication skills in accessing and researching real-time or information services such as the weather and news. Lessons which incorporate the Internet also provide current and motivating content for classroom discussions that can further develop concepts while simultaneously increasing linguistic and communication skills.

Teacher Morale, Student Self Concept and Parental Adjustment: A National Study
Donald Moores, Ernest Hairston & Margery S. Miller

Results were presented from a three year study of students self-concept, teacher morale, and parental adjustment involving 28 geographically diverse programs for deaf and hard of hearing children. Participating programs included seven residential schools for the deaf, seventeen large public school programs for the deaf, and four small (30 students fewer) public school programs for the deaf.

Reports from 213 teachers suggested that their morale is low in all three types of placement, especially in regards to workload and in reported feelings of pressure related to community expectations. Parental adjustment appears to be better than suggested by previous research, with majority of parent respondents reporting that they sign and that communication with their deaf children is understandable. This was verified by children. Student self-concept results were addressed.

Characteristics of the population and implications for teacher education and for educational programs were discussed.

Values, Ethics and Dispositions to Teacher Preparation
Mary Ellen Nevins

Teacher preparation programs are currently advised to prepare mission statements and philosophies consistent with communication and teaching philosophies and practices. Yet, ethical behavior entails providing families with knowledge and skills to make appropriate choices for their Deaf/Hard of Hearing child. Personal experience and bias of teacher preparation personnel will likely affect the manner in which a belief system about the education of students who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing is communicated to preservice teachers. Whether this communication is explicit or implicit, it is difficult to set aside certain dispositions to teaching that have developed as a result of direct experience, and most likely successful experience, with a particular communication philosophy or methodology. The challenge of preparing professionals who will be fair and unbiased in communication information about a continuum of options to parents of a child who is Deaf/Hard of Hearing was the topic of this discussion group.

Teacher Subject Matter Competencies in Mathematics: Where Do We Go From Here?
Claudia M. Pagliaro

In this increasingly technological society, knowledge of mathematical concepts and the ability to actively apply those concepts have become critical factors for success in the 21st century. Educators of deaf and hard of hearing students, however, often find themselves at a loss with mathematics instruction. Teacher preparation programs rarely focus on mathematics pedagogy and content, and teachers are often inadequately trained. The National Action Plan for Mathematics Education Reform for the Deaf recommends that preservice and in-service programs assume responsibility for raising the mathematical skills and knowledge of these professionals.

Recommendations were discussed that could significantly impact teacher education and lead deaf and hard of hearing students into the next millennium.

Parental Involvement: Deaf Versus Hearing Children
Gerald Powers & Jennifer Saskiewicz

Parental involvement is a key factor in any child's academic success. Is there a difference in parental involvement in deaf versus hearing children's educational program? This research study utilized a twenty-three question survey to collect data on demographic and content related questions on parental involvement. An analysis of the research results indicated hearing parents involvement in their deaf child's education did not differ from the involvement in their hearing child's education. The presentation included a description of the research problem, the research sample, the research instrument and an analysis of the research results. The presentation concluded with suggestions for improving parental involvement in educational programs.

Speech-Language Pathologist or Teacher of the Deaf/Hard of Hearing: Who is more qualified to serve populations with hearing loss?
Gerald Powers & Christopher L. Schwilk

Both Speech-Language Pathologists and teachers of the Deaf/Hard of Hearing are certified by many states to deliver services to populations with hearing loss. This presentation outlined a self-reporting survey concerned with abilities/experiences a nd a knowledge-based competency test drawn from the certification agencies of the two professions (C.E.D and A.S.H.A). The research sample consisted of one-hundred Speech-Language Pathologists and one-hundred teachers of the Deaf/Hard of Hearing randomly selected. On the ability self reporting survey nearly all of the respondents, including the speech-language pathologists, indicated that the Teachers of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing were more qualified than Speech-Language Pathologists to serve the needs of deaf and hard of hearing persons. The presentation included a description of the research problem, the training programs for both professions, the research sample, the research instrument and an analysis of the research results.

Teaming Up to Create Community For Kids
Suzanne Rosenberg & Susan Brooks

This poster session demonstrated the process by which a public school teacher and a university instructor established a collaborative teaching unit on English and ASL poetry. The goal of both teachers in establishing this relationship was to create a sense of community and connectivity for deaf adolescents.

The public school teacher worked in a small city school system serving deaf students from various nearby rural communities. None of these communities has a large, active population of deaf adults. Current literature supports the premise that student should be introduced to the concepts and realities of Deaf community and culture. The college instructor worked in teacher preparation at a state university in a rural community. For university educators to maintain credibility, to practice effective instructional strategies, and to keep abreast the issues, it is important for them to cultivate connections with public schools and deaf students.

Preparation of Teachers of Deaf Students through University and School Partnerships; Collaborative Journey
Marily Sass-Lehrer, Joseph Fischgrund, Richard R. Lytle & David S. Martin

This presentation described the main features of Project ACHIEVE which was established to encourage persons from under represented groups, including person (deaf and learning) who are members of racial, linguistic or ethnic minorities, to pursue a master's degree in Deaf Education. The program incorporates elements of the Professional Development School model, focusing on a partnership between the schools and the university teacher education program providing course work and field experiences with mentor teachers, other school personnel, and university faculty.

The program which began in the summer of 1995, now has 11 students. The program of studies offers either a generic program at the elementary or secondary levels, or a specialized program in the areas of family centered early education or multiple disabilities. Courses are offered through a variety of traditional an alternative approaches including both university and site-based courses during the fall and spring semesters with intensive course offerings during the summer.

The Relationship Between ASL Skill and English Literacy
Michael Strong and Phillip Prinz

This presentation reported on a four-year study investigating the relationship between ASL skill and English literacy acquisition among residential school deaf students aged 8-15 at the start of the study. Three aspects included: ASL language test, developed by the authors during the first (pilot) year specifically for this research; the results from the first year of data collection; and the results from the second year of data collection. 160 deaf students were tested each year for three years in ASL and English reading and writing (both production and comprehension). The following questions were addressed: 1) Is there a relationship between ASL skill and English literacy? 2) Do students with deaf mothers outperform students with hearing mothers in both ASL and English literacy? 3) As ASL skills improve, is there also an improvement in English literacy?

After controlling for IQ and age the researchers found a strong and consistent relationship between ASL skill and English literacy among these students. Furthermore, as would be expected, students with deaf mothers outpreformed students with hearing mothers in both ASL and English literacy. However, when level of ASL was held constant, there was no difference between the two groups, suggesting that ASL skill is the critical factor in the superior performance of children with deaf parents.

T-Unit Analysis: A Usable Assessment Tool of English for the Classroom
Alfred White, Paula Scott & Dorothy Grant

Multiple reasons exist for documenting linguistic development of children who are deaf or hard of hearing and who experience difficulty in developing English. However, finding "teacher friendly" techniques with which to make frequent and valid assessments has proven to be difficult. Currently, there are no standardized tests or established procedures for making frequent (several times a year) assessment of English proficiency.

Hunt (1965) developed the T-unity as an appropriate unit of analysis for assessing the spontaneous written English of hearing children. He then calculated the mean number of words per T-unit for children at various age levels. This presentation described research to validate the work of Hunt and to determine if such "T-unit analysis" is sufficiently "teacher friendly" and sufficiently "sensitive" for use with children who are deaf and who are experiencing serious difficulty in acquiring literacy in English.

Also presented was information on how T-unit can be used to make better predictions of class placement and to select appropriate reading texts for children.

The Development of Informal Assessment/Evaluation Skills through Classroom Observations
Kathryn H. Kreimeyer, L. Davis, K. Herron, G. Jabbour, J. Loga, L. Warns, & J. Zhao

This session presented an overviews of the University of Arizona's "Observation and Participation" course. Through lectures, handouts and guided instruction, students work in teams to explore the process of assessment/data collection by: generating a question for investigation, determining an appropriate data collection strategy, recording the data, summarizing the obtained data to address the selected question, computing interobserver reliability, identifying procedural errors and strategies for correction, and finally sharing the entire procedure with classmates. Instruction begins in the classroom then moves into local school programs and is applied during live observations in classrooms. The question formulating and data collecting strategies acquired during this course are then directly applied to the process of assessment and evaluation required of students during there subsequent internship placements. Students find the process most useful as the assess children's present level of performance to determine appropriate instructional objectives and develop procedures to monitor progress on the selected objective.