|QUESTION 1:|| What are the normative cognitive learning patterns for hearing
children (0-5 years)?|
Innate Capabilities: Siegler (1991)
Progression of Child Development: Flavell (1971)
- Infants are born with perceptual skills and conceptual understanding.
- Infants have distance perception.
- Infants understand the concept of number groupings up to the number three.
- Infants are able to access imitation skills.
When Change Occurs in Children: Siegler (1991)
- Childrenís thinking is measured by the qualitative changes in their behavior.
- There is a transition from one developmental stage to another on many concepts at
the same time.
- Changes in a childís development occurs abruptly.
- Childrenís thinking is structured into a coherent organization rather than
random unrelated thoughts.
- Childrenís thinking continually changes and evolves.
Variability in Individuals: Siegler (1991)
- Readiness Concept.
A. When and what children learn depends on the fit between their general level
of knowledge and their general level of thinking.
- The Process of How Children Change.
A. Automation- the increase executing of mental processes so efficiently that
they require less and less attention.
B. Encoding- identifying the most formative features of objects and events
and using features to form internal representations.
C. Generalization- the ability to use the same information for all situations.
D. Strategy Construction- the ability to create a plan in order to
- Measures of Intelligence
A. Infant intelligence is measured by the rate of habituation (the length
of perception/attention spans) as compared with other infants.
B. IQ scores are the product of a larger variety of cognitive and social processes.
- Multiple Intelligence: Gardner (1983)
A. There are seven areas of intellectual competence:
- Verbal/Linguistic- Words and language.
- Logical/Mathematical- Inductive and deductive thinking and
reasoning, number patterns and recognition of abstract patterns.
- Visual/Spatial- Sense of sight and the visualization of objects and ability
to create internal mental images/pictures.
- Body/Kinesthetic- Physical movement and body movement control.
- Musical/Rhythmic- Recognition of tonal patterns, sounds, and sensitivity
to rhythm and beats.
- Interpersonal- Social interactions and communication skills.
- Intrapersonal- Metacognition, self identity, and awareness of spatial
- Gardenerís Seven Styles of Learning: Susan Brooks
- Strong memorization skills.
- Processes information by saying, hearing and seeing words.
B. Logical/Mathematical Learner
- Strong in math, reasoning, logic, and problem solving.
- Processes information by categorizing, classifying, and working with
C. Spatial Learner
- Strong with imagination, sensitive to changes, mazes, puzzles, reading
- Processes information by visualizing and using pictorial images.
D. Musical Learner
- Strengths lie in picking up sounds, remembering melodies, sensitive to
pitch and rhythms.
- Processes information by using rhythms, melodies and music.
E. Body/Kinesthetic Learner
- Strengths lie in tactile behaviors.
- Processes information through body movements and tactile behaviors.
F. Interpersonal Learner
- Strong leadership style, good empathy skills, good conflict resolution
skills, and strong communication skills.
- Processes information by accessing others, sharing ideas and comparing
informational feedback from others.
G. Intrapersonal Learner
- Strengths lie in understanding self, internalization of thoughts
- Processes information by individualizing projects, self pacing instruction
and private work environment.
Siegler, R. (1991). Childrenís thinking. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Gardner, H., (1983). Frames of the mind: The theory of multiple intellegence. New York:Basic Books.
- It is important to have an understanding of normative cognitive functioning in hearing children
to assist teacherís in their understanding of how to improve teaching strategies.
- Teachers will be able to appreciate the work that their students are able to accomplish.
- Teachers will be able to identify whether or not a child is appropriate for their developmental
- This information should assist teachers in focusing on the studentís strengths and help them to
develop their weaknesses.
- A teacher may be able to make a referral for the child to be tested if she is able to identify the
childís inability to perform simple age appropriate tasks.
- A teacher may schedule her time around different groups of children who appear to move more quickly than other children who may move more slowly.
- Teachers may use this knowledge to help them reframe their thinking regarding the speed and
accuracy of their studentís performances. Teachers need to have a working understanding of
this knowledge to manage their own stress and frustration levels.
- Teachers will be able to readjust their curriculum to the developmental stage at which a child
may be at.
- A teacher may be able to readjust classroom management style in order to accommodate for
the childrenís developmental stage.
- Flavell J.H., (1985). Cognitive development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:Prentice Hall.
- Piaget, J., (1971). The construction of reality in the child. New York: Ballentine.
- Gardner, H., (1983). Frames of the mind: The theory of multiple intellegence. New York: