QUESTION 1: What are the normative cognitive learning patterns for hearing children (0-5 years)?

Innate Capabilities: Siegler (1991)

  1. Infants are born with perceptual skills and conceptual understanding.
  2. Infants have distance perception.
  3. Infants understand the concept of number groupings up to the number three.
  4. Infants are able to access imitation skills.
Progression of Child Development: Flavell (1971)
  1. Childrenís thinking is measured by the qualitative changes in their behavior.
  2. There is a transition from one developmental stage to another on many concepts at the same time.
  3. Changes in a childís development occurs abruptly.
  4. Childrenís thinking is structured into a coherent organization rather than random unrelated thoughts.
  5. Childrenís thinking continually changes and evolves.
When Change Occurs in Children: Siegler (1991)
  1. Readiness Concept.
  2. The Process of How Children Change.
Variability in Individuals: Siegler (1991)
  1. Measures of Intelligence
  2. Multiple Intelligence: Gardner (1983)
  3. Gardenerís Seven Styles of Learning: Susan Brooks


Siegler, R. (1991). Childrenís thinking. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Gardner, H., (1983). Frames of the mind: The theory of multiple intellegence. New York:Basic Books.


  1. It is important to have an understanding of normative cognitive functioning in hearing children to assist teacherís in their understanding of how to improve teaching strategies.

  2. Teachers will be able to appreciate the work that their students are able to accomplish.

  3. Teachers will be able to identify whether or not a child is appropriate for their developmental age.

  4. This information should assist teachers in focusing on the studentís strengths and help them to develop their weaknesses.

  5. A teacher may be able to make a referral for the child to be tested if she is able to identify the childís inability to perform simple age appropriate tasks.

  6. A teacher may schedule her time around different groups of children who appear to move more quickly than other children who may move more slowly.

  7. Teachers may use this knowledge to help them reframe their thinking regarding the speed and accuracy of their studentís performances. Teachers need to have a working understanding of this knowledge to manage their own stress and frustration levels.

  8. Teachers will be able to readjust their curriculum to the developmental stage at which a child may be at.

  9. A teacher may be able to readjust classroom management style in order to accommodate for the childrenís developmental stage.
  1. Flavell J.H., (1985). Cognitive development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:Prentice Hall.
  2. Piaget, J., (1971). The construction of reality in the child. New York: Ballentine.
  3. Gardner, H., (1983). Frames of the mind: The theory of multiple intellegence. New York: Basic Books.