5. What problems are specific to d/Deaf Hispanic children?
-Dual ethnic membership
- Compounds role confusion and identity crises (Cohen, 1993)
- May be discriminated against by white d/Deaf people and by hearing Hispanic people (Cohen, 1993)
- Do not have the linguistic and auditory competency to learn cultural and ethnic values incidentally (Cohen, 1993)
- Must communicate mostly through signs and gestures to family members who speak mostly Spanish--often conflicts with English used in schools
-Creates greater isolation and more problems in the family relationship (Lerman, 1984)
-Decreased involvement and misconceptions of parents
- Many children have had little or no educational experience prior to entry into U.S. special education system--Therefore, concept of parent involvement is simply unfamiliar(Blackwell & Fischgrund, 1984)
- Parents’ typical feelings of discomfort , intimidation, and alienation in a school setting are exacerbated in a program for Deaf children because of communication differences (Cohen, 1993)
- Parents generally do not possess the skills necessary for utilizing due process rights concerning the education of disabled children (Cohen, 1993)
- Parents often hold the general view of the d/Deaf as deficient because Deaf communities in developing countries still lack influence--May lead to low expectations (Gerner de Garcia, 1993)
- Need for early and consistent amplification is very often not understood by parents because use of amplification devices may have been uncommon in their home culture (Blackwell & Fischgrund, 1984)
- Information presented by professionals often misunderstood or misconstrued because of lack of English proficiency and formal education (Fischgrund, Cohen, & Clarkson, 1987)
-Disproportionate board and staff representation (Cohen, 1993)
- Approximately 94 percent of a teacher sample surveyed in 1980 reported their ethnic background as "white"
-Contributes to lack of awareness and understanding
- Lack of proportionate representation results in a strong and pervading white, hearing, middle-class cultural orientation
-May be interpreted by parents and students as insensitivity
- Imbalance of ethnic board members limits school policy regarding ethnic d/Deaf children
-Problems with late identification
- Due to lack of Spanish-speaking professionals, lack of access to health care, and lack of parental awareness (Gerner de Garcia, 1993)
- Some parents ignored by doctors—problems of child incorrectly attributed to developmental delays (Gerner de Garcia, 1993)
- Some parents received no help or diagnosis until they immigrated to U.S. -- May have lived in isolated rural locations far from services (Gerner de Garcia, 1993)
- Many families resist health care resources completely because find services to be threatening and inaccessible -- prefer to look to non-medical and non-educational networks for support and information (Fischgrund, Cohen, & Clarkson, 1987)
- Many children remain undetected past critical age for language acquisition (Jackson-Maldonado, 1993)
-Placement and assessment problems (Gerner de Garcia, 1993)
- Underrepresented in some special education classes
-Students being placed in bilingual regular education classes to meet their
-Special needs are ignored
- May be forced into an English immersion situation despite their ability to perform higher level academic tasks in Spanish
- Some suffer from inappropriate placement in schools for the Deaf because staff is not prepared to work with this population
- Some inappropriately placed in special education classes for language delayed, learning disabled, or developmentally delayed children
-Due to: biased assessment practices, examiner bias, and inadequate
training of evaluators
- Children often labeled incorrectly as having "no language" because of evaluators’ lack of Spanish-speaking skills
- Assessment personnel who are trained in both deaf education and are from diverse ethnic backgrounds are very scarce—therefore students’ underlying competence not accurately reflected most of the time (MacNeil, 1990)
- Most early intervention programs are inaccessible to these families
-May have difficulty getting to schools or clinics because of work hours
and transportation difficulties (Gerner de Garcia, 1993)
- Many families cannot easily afford appropriate medical attention (Dean, 1984)
- Many families cannot afford hearing aides (Jackson-Maldonado, 1993)
-Differences in communication philosophies and/or poor educational experiences in
native countries (Jackson-Maldonado, 1993)
- Most education programs in Mexico and Latin America are auditory/oral or oral only -- Most children cannot benefit because of late identification and/or lack of hearing aides
- Total communication programs, when available, lack theoretical background and proper training for teachers
- Very few teachers are even nearly proficient in any form of sign language
- Many teachers are not specialists in deaf education
- Teachers who have been trained mostly use methodologies from the 1950’s and earlier, such as Fitzgerald Key and McGinnis method
Blackwell, P.M., & Fischgrund, J.E. (1984). Issues in the development of culturally responsive programs for deaf students from non-English-speaking homes. In Delgado, G.L. (Ed.), The Hispanic deaf. Washington, DC: Gallaudet College Press.
Cohen, O. (1993). Educational needs of African American and Hispanic deaf children and youth. In Christensen, K.M., & Delgado, G.L. (Eds.), Multicultural issues in deafness. New York: Longman Publishing.
Fischgrund, J., Cohen, O., & Clarkson, R. (1987). Hearing impaired children in black and Hispanic families. Volta Review, 89 (5), 59-67.
Gerner de Garcia, B. (1993). Addressing the needs of Hispanic deaf children. In Christensen, K.M., & Delgado, G.L. (Eds.), Multicultural issues in deafness. New York: Longman Publishing.
Jackson-Maldonado, D. (1993). Mexico and the United States: A cross-cultural perspective on the education of deaf children. In Christensen, K.M., & Delgado, G.L. (Eds.), Multicultural issues in deafness. New York: Longman Publishing.
Lerman, A. (1984). Survey of Hispanic hearing-impaired students and their families in New York city. In Delgado, G.L. (Ed.), The Hispanic deaf. Washington, DC: Gallaudet College Press.